Campaigns of Mohammed and Islam
June 2004 version

"It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah [Mohammed] said: I have been commanded that I should fight against people till they declare that there is no god but Allah..." Sahih Muslim vol.1:32 p.17

Al-'Abbas bin Ubadah said, "In swearing allegiance to him [Mohammed], you are pledging yourselves to wage war on all mankind." al-Tabari vol.6 p.134

"It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer, and pay Zakat..." Sahih Muslim vol.1:33 p.17

Number of Campaigns

Some say Islam means peace. Actually the word means submission at least as much as peace. Regardless though, look at these campaigns to judge for yourself if the original practice of Islam means peace.

Mohammed fought 19 battles. Sahih Muslim vol.3:4465,4466 (p.1005) Bukhari vol.5:285 (p.195)

Mohammed conducted 19 military campaigns and he (actually) fought in eight of them. Sahih Muslim vol.3:4467 (p.1005)

Hum Atiyya took part with Mohammed himself in seven battles Sahih Muslim vol.3:4462 (p.1004)

The footnote in Sahih Muslim vol.1 on p.1005 says there is disagreement on this. It says Mohammed himself participated in 26, and there were 56 others where he did not personally participate.

The Translator's commentary in Sahih Muslim vol.3 p.941 gives war statistics. It says there were 82 encounters 1018 people killed: including 259 Muslims and 759 no-Muslims. This does not count the 700-1000 Mohammed had beheaded at Khaibar.

Abu Lubabah knew that Sa'd would probably have the banu Quraizah put to death. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 2766 p.942. This is the context of Sura 8:27.

Description of Some Campaigns

The order of campaigns presented here is not necessarily chronological order, because there are disagreements among scholars on the order.

Sif al-Bahr expedition led by Hamzah month 9 A.H. 1 according to al-Qaqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

Rabigh/Ahya led by 'Ubaydah expedition in month 10 A.H. 1 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

Al-Kharrar expedition led by Sa'd. Month 11 year 1 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix.

1st battle (Ghazwat): Al-Abwa' / Waddan led by Mohammed in month 2 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. Bukhari vol.5:285 prior (p.195). See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

2nd battle (Ghazwat): Buwat 200 Muslim emigrants led by Mohammed attacked 100 Meccans in the caravan. Bukhari vol.5:285 prior (p.195) month 3 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

A camel raid sent by Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.14

Safawan was a punitive expedition led by Mohammed in month 6 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

3rd battle (Ghazwat): Al-'Ashira/Al-'Ashiru/al-'Ushayrah led by Mohammed Bukhari vol.5:285 prior, 285 (p.195) Month 6 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix

At the Battle of Badr in 624 A.D. (A.H. 3), 89 Muslim emigrants and 239 Ansaris under Mohammed fought the Meccans under Abu Sufyan. The Muslims won with 14 killed. 70 Meccans were killed, and 70 taken captive. Sahih Muslim vol.3:4394 (p.975-976), Sahih Muslim vol.3:4341 p.951 vol.3:4360 p.960-961 (17 Ramadan, 2 A.H.) Bukhari vol.5:462 (p.323). 'Ali received one she-camel as his share of war booty after Badr. Bukhari vol.4:324 p.206. The number of Muslims fighting at Badr was actually 240 Ansaris and 60 Emigrants according to Bukhari vol.5:292 p.201.

15-day Siege and expulsion of the Jewish Banu Qaynuqa' tribe from Medina in 624 A.D. (A.H 3). The Muslims had a treaty with these people prior to this. The stated purpose of the expulsion was because they had said, "Muhammad has not met anyone who is good at fighting. Had he met us, he would have had a battle which would be unlike a battle with anyone else." They also infringed the contract in various [unspecified] ways. Details of this are in al-Tabari vol.7 p.85-88.

Assassination of Ka'b bin al-Ashraf by five Muslims. He was a Meccan with a Jewish mother and pagan Arab father. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix. According to al-Waqidi in al-Tabari vol.7 p.101 al-Ashraf was assassinated before the battle of Uhud. See also Abu Dawud vol.2:2762 p.775.

Abdullah bin 'Atik and some other Muslims were sent to assassinate Abu Rafi Sallam bin abi Al-Huqayq, the Jew. They attacked him in the dark while he was sleeping. Bukhari vol.5:371 (p.251-253) He broke his leg escaping, but Mohammed miraculously healed it. You can also read about this in detail in al-Tabari vol.7 p.99-105. They spared his wife according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.101,103.

This Abu Rafi is not to be confused a Copt of the same name (Abu Rafi'), who later became a Muslim. Abu Dawud vol.2:2752 p.770

Battle of Uhud (3/25/625 A.D. 3 A.H.) was a defensive battle the Muslims lost. Abu Sufyan and 3,000 Meccans marched against Medina. 700 men had coats of mail, and there were 200 cavalry. Mohammed had 1,000 men, of which 300 under 'Abd Allah bin Ubayy returned to Medina prematurely. Sahih Muslim vol.3:4413 (p.984-985) Mohammed was wounded there Bukhari vol.4:159 (p.102). vol.5:400 (p.277) vol.5:151 (p.102).

When Mohammed was wounded, Talhah saved his life at the Battle of Uhud. al-Tabari vol.15 footnote 375 p.202

The souls of those who died at Uhud were put in the crops of green birds in Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2:2514 p.699

During the Battle of Uhud, Mohammed wore two coats of mail as double protection. Abu Dawud vol.2:2584 p.217

The al-Sawiq (Barley-meal) raid was a defensive action led by Mohammed in 624 A.D. (A.H. 2). It is disputed whether al-Sawiq was before or after the expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa'. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix and p.88 for more info.

Expedition to Qarqarat al-Kudr/Qararat al-Kudr led by Mohammed in 624 A.D (A.H. 2). They drove off the livestock, but no one died. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.88-89 for more info. al-Tabari vol.14 140 says Qarqarat was about 6 miles outside of Khaybar.

Expedition to Najd (=Dhu Amarr) against the Ghatafan tribe in A.H. 3. No one died though. al-Tabari vol.7 p.93.

Muslims under Ghalib bin 'Abd Allah al-Laythi raided the Banu Sulaym and Ghatafan, killing some of the enemy and taking their livestock. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.89 and p.xxix for more info.

Al-Qaradah raid on a caravan led by Mohammed's adopted son Zayd. One-fifth of the booty, which Mohammed took, was 20,000 Dirhams. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix,99

Expedition to Dumat al-Jandal in 62 A.D. (A.H. 5) al-Tabari vol. 8 p.4 footnote 17.

Battle of the Ditch/Trench (Ahzab) (=Battle of Khandaq) in 627 A.D. (A.H. 5). Sahih Muslim vol.3:4412 (p.983-984). This was a defensive battle when the Meccans attacked Medina. At the advice of Salman al-Farisi (al-Farisi means The Persian), Mohammed ordered a wide ditch to be dug for defense.

Skirmish of Dhu Qarad against the Bani Fazarah. Sahih Muslim vol.3:4449 p.995 (probably three days before the battle of Khaibar). Dhu Qarad was about a day's ride from Medina.

Khaibar (Qurayzah tribe) in 627 A.D. (6 A.H.) Bukhari vol.1:208 (p.138) vol.1:214 (p.140) Sahih Muslim vol.1:209 (p.65) Sahih Muslim vol.3:4437,4438,4439 (p.992-993) Mohammed was there Bukhari vol.5:515 p.364; vol.5:262 p.241.

al-Tabari vol.5 p.165, vol.8 p.27-28. They were besieged for 25 nights according to al-Tabari vol.8 p.30. See also al-Tabari vol.39 p.130

An expedition before Dhat al-Riqa' according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv.

Battle of Dhat ur Riqa/ Dhat al-Riqa' in A.H. 4 Sahih Muslim vol.2:1830 p.401 vol.3:4471 p.1005. Unsure when this took place, though al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv says A.H. 4. Regardless, it was after Khaibar according to Bukhari vol.5:prior to 450 (p.310-311). Muslims were killed here.

The Battle of Dhat al-Riqa was in 5 A.H. according to Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 641 p.322

Dhat al-Riqa = Battle of Najd. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 643 p.323

Mohammed was present there. Sunan Nasa'i vol.2:1540 p.321; vol.2:1542 p.322; vol.2:1546 p.324

Dhat al-Riqa was two days from Medina. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 645 p.324

Raji' was a failed expedition in A.H. 4 after Dhat ur Riqa according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv. Muslims were killed here.

Bi'r Ma'unah was a failed expedition in A.H. 4 after Raji' according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv. Muslims were killed here.

Badr al-Maw'id (=Barley-meal raid II) was a minor skirmish in A.H. 4 after Bi'r Ma'unah according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv.

Expelling the Banu al-Nadir tribe in A.H. 5.

Expedition to Najd Sahih Muslim vol3 no.4330,4331,4332 (p.949) Bukhari vol.5:458 (p.315)

Battle of Bu'ath Sahih Muslim vol.2:1938,1942 p.420.

Battle of Tabuk Bukhari vol.2:559 p.325 was an offensive war. A.H. 9 (630-631 A.D.) See al-Tabari vol.9 p.46-48. Mohammed stayed at Tabuk 20 days. Abu Dawud vol.1:1231 p.319

Invite or fight. In A.H. 10, Mohammed sent Khalid b. al-Walid to Balharith to invite them to Islam for three days before he fought them. They converted, and nobody died. al-Tabari vol.9 p.82. Note that before Mecca was conquered, Kalid b. Walid was a chief of unbelievers. Abu Dawud vol.1:1232 p.320

Surprise attack on the Bi'l-Mustaliq (=Balmustaliq) tribe in 627/628 A.D (5/6 A.H.) without any warning while they made the "mistake" of heedlessly grazing their cattle. They were said to have had "excellent Arab women" that the Muslim soldiers had sex with afterwards. Sahih Muslim vol.2:3371 p.733-734. Mohammed got his wife Juwairiya as a captive from them. Bukhari vol.3:717 (p.432-433) Also al-Tabari vol.8 p.51-56.

Mohammed attacked the Banu al-Mustaliq while they were inattentive and their cattle were drinking water. That was when Juwairiyyah bint al-Harith was obtained." Abu Dawud vol.2:227 p.727-728

Mohammed himself led the raid on the Banu Mustaliq tribe. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57

Abu Sa'd al-Khudri was 15 years old when he went on a raid of the Banu Mustaliq with Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57

Expedition against the Banu Lihyan tribe in 627 A.D (6 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.42-43

Expedition against Dhu Qarad in 627/628 A.D. (6 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.43-44

Zayd b. Harithah's army raided al-Fadafid, rounded up the men and cattle, and killed al-Hunayd and his son and three others in 10 A.H. al-Tabari vol.9 p.100-101.

War against the Juhaina tribe Sahih Muslim vol.2:1827 p.400.

Zayd/Zaid bin harith led a raiding party to al-Jamum. al-Tabari vol.8 p.93

'Umar and 30 men raided the "rear" of Hawazan at Turabah. The non-Muslims fled without any fighting. al-Tabari vol.8 p.131

Bashir b. Sa'd and 30 men raided the Banu Murah at Fadak. Bashir was wounded, and his companions were killed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.132. Note that on p.123,129 the booty became exclusively Mohammed's because camels and horses had not been spurred against it.

Bashir b. Sa'd raided the Ghatafan at Yumm and Jinab. This was prompted by Mohammed's guide alleging there was a large gathering of Ghatafan at al-Hinab was preparing to march against Mohammed. Notice that a raiding party was sufficient to defeat the allegedly "large" hostile gathering. al-Tabari vol.8 p.133

The raid of Abi al-'Awja al-Sulami. al-Tabari vol.8 p.138

Shuja' bin Wahb and 24 men raided the Banu 'Amir and took camels and sheep. "The shares [of booty] came to fifteen camels for each man." al-Tabari vol.8 p.143

Expedition of Dhat al-Salasil in 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.146-147

A.H. 8 'Amr bin al-'As and 300 men raided al-Salasil of the tribe of Quda'h. al-Tabari vol.8 p.146

There was a house called Dhu'l-Khalasa or Al-Ka'ba Al-Yamaniya, and Mohammed asked Jarir to "relieve him" of it. Jarir and 150 horse-riders "dismantled it and killed whoever was present there. Then I came to the Prophet and informed him, and he invoked good upon us and Al-Ahmas (tribe)." Bukhari vol.5:641-642 p.450-451

Expedition of al-Khabat in 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.147-148

Abu 'Ubaydah b. al-Jarrah and 300 riders raided the tribe of Juhaynah at al-Khabat in A.H. 8. al-Tabari vol.8 p.146. This is also called the Ghazwa of the sea coast in Bukhari vol.5 chapter 64 and vol.5:646-648 p.454-457. Probably the same as the expedition where they ate a dead whale for a month in Abu Dawud vol.3:3831 p.1079

Expedition to Mu'tah in Aug./Sept. 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) where 3,000 Muslims fought and lost against allegedly 100,000 Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.8 p.152-153. The few survivors must have counted the 100,000 rather quickly.

Dispersing of booty and raiding the tribe of Abil. al-Tabari vol.10 p.17

Ja'far al-Tayyar, 'Ali's brother died in the battle of Mu'tah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 footnote 767

Day of Victory over Mecca Sahih Muslim vol.2:3139 (p.682). 10,000 Muslims conquered Mecca. al-Tabari vol.8 p.168. Bukhari vol.5:574 p.400

Battle of Hunain 1-2/28/630 (8 A.H.) Sahih Muslim vol.2 (p.491,505) vol.3:4340 p.950 vol.3:4385 p.972-973; vol.4:6092; Abu Dawud vol.2:2495 p.692. al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 20 p.7

The tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif advanced toward Mecca Saturday 6 Shawwal 8.H.

At Hunain the enemy were called polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2:3188 p.907

Mohammed borrowed 30 to 40 coats of mail before the Battle of Hunain from Safwan. Abu Dawud vol.2:3555-3557 p.1010

Battle of Ta'if Sahih Muslim vol.3:4393 (p.974-975)

Battle of Hawazin Sahih Muslim vol.3:4344 (p.952)

Battle against the Fazara Sahih Muslim vol.3:4345 p.953.


- - - - - After Mohammed died - - - - -

Battle of Jamal (the Camel) 656 A.D. 35 A.H. Aisha and two generals, Talha and al-Zubair) who two of the ten companions of the prophet who were promised paradise. They rebelled against 'Ali but lost. Talha and Zubair were killed by the other Muslim army, yet they were promised Paradise by Mohammed.

30K for 'Aisha fought 20K for 'Ali. 10K died at the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.164.

At the Battle of the Camel both sides were heavily armored, so both sides concentrated on hacking off limbs. al-Tabari vol.17 p.135

Battle of Siffin 7/657 Sahih Muslim vol.2 footnote 1430 (p.509) Muslims fought each other.

Massacre at Harra (63 A.H.) Sahih Muslim vol.2 footnote 1175 p.421.

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