Bible Query from
Q: In Mal 1:1, when was the book of Malachi written?
A: The book of Malachi does not say. A guess is that it was about 433 B.C. A skeptical work, Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.670 places the date at 460 B.C.
The Believerís Bible Commentary p.1173 says between 470 and 460 B.C. Three reasons are that the Temple has been rebuilt for some time, the walls were rebuilt, and Malachi used a word for governor that was only known in post-exilic times.
Q: In Mal 1:1, was Malachi the prophetís name, or was he calling himself a messenger?
A: Genuine Christians disagree.
1. The word "Malachi" can mean messenger, and it is used as "messenger" in Malachi 3:1. Unlike Zechariah, Abram, and other names, It is unknown as a personal name anywhere else.
2. Other names, such as David, are not known as names anywhere else, either. It might be a shortened form of "Malachijah" "Yahweh is my messenger" or similar. Malachi 3:1 likely was a play on words on Malachiís name.
See An Exegetical Commentary : Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi p.389-390 for more info.
Q: In Mal 1:1, was Malachi written by an angel?
A: The word "Malachi" can mean messenger. In Greek, the word for messenger (angelos) also means angel. However, there is no evidence other than Malachiís name to support thinking Malachi was an angel.
According to the Believerís Bible Commentary p.1173, some early church writers thought this might be the case. However, I was unable to verify this in the Pre-Nicene church writers. Looking through references to 1 Clement, To Diognetus, Justin Martyr, and Tertullian. Tertullian in An Answer to the Jews chapter 9 did say that many in the Old Testament were "angels" in the sense of being messengers. However, Tertullian never suggests they were anything other than ordinary human beings.
Q: In Mal 1:1, was Malachiís job to uplift the despondent Jews, since the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah failed to pass, as Asimovís Guide to the Bible p.670-671 claims?
A: No and no. Malachi 1-2 is not primarily to uplift the Jews. Rather, it is explanatory, showing that insincere worship is not worth much to God. Malachi 3 and 4 is both convicting and uplifting, as well as somewhat scary. In the New Testament, the Book of Revelation has a similar tone.
While the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah did not yet come to pass in the time of Malachi, both prior to Christ and now people recognized the prophecies as relating to the Messiah. Some of the prophecies, such as Zechariah 12-14 will be fulfilled during Christís second coming.
Q: In Mal 1:1-4, how did God love Jacob and hate Esau?
A: Three points to consider in the answer.
People, not a person: The context of this is stated to be the "land" (Malachi 1:3) and of a "wicked people" (Malachi 1:4). This was written long after Esau had died. When Critics Ask p.323 discusses this aspect more.
Degrees of love: As R.C. Sproul says in Now Thatís A Good Question p.570, this is also a Jewish idiom called antithetical parallelism. This shows not hatred of Esauís descendants, but the differential between the degree of love given to Jacob and withheld from Esau. See the discussion on Romans 9:13 for more info on God having "the right" to have a special love for some that He withholds from others. Hard Sayings of the Bible p.347-348 and Haleyís Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible p.97-98 also discuss this Hebrew idiom of "loving less".
Terms of a Treaty: Walter Kaiser in A History of Israel p.389-392 mentions that these words: "love" and "hate" have been found in treaties of this time. He gives three references of places where "love" and "hate" are used in suzerainty (pronounced SUZ-ren-ty) treaties to indicate "chosen" and "rejected". This is consistent with the Old Testament use of "covenant-love", which means only secondarily an emotion and primarily a choice.
Q: In Mal 1:4, why would God stop Esauís descendants (the Edomites) from rebuilding?
A: This was part of the punishment of the nation of Edom.
Q: In Mal 1:6-8,12; 2:1, how do believers sometimes fail to honor God as they should?
A: They can fail to honor God as Father, Master, and King, in at least four ways.
Attitude: The world can lull us to ingratitude. We can just go through the motions. Believers can fail to be grateful, respectful, reverent, and they could doubt Godís providence. Believers can have a lack of love toward God and others.
Words: They could not honor in God what they say to others about Him. In addition to specifically saying bad things, they could have a casual tone that shows a lack of a reverent attitude.
Action: They might not be obedient and do things God does not want them to do. Romans 14:23 says that whatever is not done from faith is sin.
Inaction: believers can either not do the things God wants, or they can do things in a half-hearted manner. James 4:17 says that when someone knows what they should do and do not do it, that is sin.
See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.706-707 for more info.
Q: In Mal 1:10,13 what are some ways people blindly give lame offerings to God today?
A: One problem is when you feel you are doing God a favor by giving Him something. God gave you everything, you owe Him everything, and we are not doing God any favors. However, we can do things that please Him, and obediently loving Him. We are not really giving to God, rather, we are giving back to God.
A second problem is thinking that God doesnít care whether you do your best, second best, or just make a token effort. Not only God but others can see when you are just going through the motions making a token effort. When you are in a teaching or leadership position in a church or ministry, it can be painfully obvious when you are not really into God but only doing so half-way.
A third problem, related to the second, is making compromises in what you give God, where God does not want you to. Priests of this time were sacrificing any animals brought forward to them, after all the meat they would get was all the same, and who cares what God commanded. Similarly getting money through questionable means, or using dishonest words or means to have donors give, saying things against what God says because that is what people want to hear are compromises to a leader obeying God. Refraining from saying what God said, because people donít want to hear it is also a compromise.
God took these compromises seriously. God did not hesitate to even curse His own priests, of they are insincerely serving Him. He killed Eliís two sons in 1 Samuel 2:21-36.
See the Evangelical Commentary on the Bible p.706-707 and Eugene H. Merrillís An Exegetical Commentary : Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi p.398 for more info.
Q: In Mal 1:10, why did God go so far here as to ask the Temple doors be shut?
A: God did not only ignore half-hearted and insincere worship and sacrifices, but those things were annoying to God.
Q: In Mal 1:11, why did Malachi mention the worship of Gentiles here?
A: Walter Kaiser, in Hard Sayings of the Old Testament p.348, points out that this was meant to startle.
1. The first Hebrew word can be translated "Yes, indeed!"
2. Malachi is saying this would happen with or without the obedience of the Jewish priests.
3. Not only would the Gentiles worship God, but sacrifices would be offered everywhere. All Jewish priests knew that sacrifices at that time were only to be offered in "their" temple.
Q: In Mal 1:13-14, when is worship a wearisome bore to God?
A: When it is artificial, half-hearted, or hypocritical, worship is not only boring to the people pretending to worship, it can be boring to God, too.
Q: In Mal 2:3, how could God corrupt their seed?
A: There are three ways.
Crops: God could cause the farmersí seed to not grow well, since they did not pay proper attention to God.
Children: God could cause their children to die, as God had David and Bathshebaís first son die in 2 Samuel 12:14,18.
In general, God could cause the fruit of the labors to come to nothing, before their very eyes.
Q: In Mal 2:6, how did Levi walk with God in truth and peace, since Levi and Simeon deceived a whole town and killed them in Gen 34:25?
A: Two points to consider in the answer.
Forgiveness: When God forgives some one, He forgives them completely and counts their sin as if it was never committed. That is why not only Levi, but others like David are considered righteous by God, not because they did not sin, but because God made them righteous after they sinned by forgiving their sin and cleansing them.
Life: No one who is a child of God continues in sin, as 1 John 3:6-9 says.
Q: In Mal 2:8, how do lying priests and ministers cause others to stumble?
A: Hypocritical ministers and priests affect others by falsely indicating that truth and obedience are not important to God. After all, they are priests and they get away with it. - at least until they are judged.
In addition, people who put their trust in the priests instead of God, will stumble when they see the priest fall.
Q: In Mal 2:8, do we have a good excuse to stumble when we see lying priests or ministers?
A: No. Early Christians had as many excuses as we have today, there were no good excuses for them either.
Judas Iscariot was one of the twelve disciples, yet he was a thief in John 12:6. Judas, like the others, could cast out demons and preached the Gospel, in Matthew 10:1,7-8.
Jezebel led many astray in Revelation 2:20-23.
Diotrephes was a church leader who refused to recognize Johnís authority in 3 John 9-10.
False apostles did not recognize Paulís authority in 2 Corinthians 11:5-7.
Even Peter was hypocritical toward Gentiles when Paul opposed him in Galatians 2:11-16.
Even Paul and Barnabas, missionaries who loved the Lord, clashed over having Mark accompany them in Acts 15:36-41. (Though they apparently later made up, as 2 Timothy 4:11 shows.)
However, people like these should not stumble our faith, if your faith, hope, and instruction are based on God, not people. False teachers are always present, but we are to pay no attention to them (2 Timothy 3:5), and we are to keep away from the idle (2 Thessalonians 3:6) and those who reject the apostlesí teaching (2 Thessalonians 3:14-15). As for people who were preaching the true gospel insincerely, out of envy and strife, and stirring up trouble for Paul, Paul said to rejoice because they were preaching the true Gospel in Philippians 1:15-18.
Q: In Mal 2:9, why was it poetic justice that God made the corrupt priests contemptible in the eyes of others?
A: The corrupt priests caused Godís name to be dishonored before others, so it was fitting that others should hold the priests in dishonor. The corrupt priests caused others to stumble, and if they eventually were held in contempt, then others would not pay attention to them and stumble more.
Q: In Mal 2:10, how is God our Father here?
A: God is our Father in more than one sense. However, Malachi 2:10 mentions God as Creator, so it is likely referring to God as the Creator of all people.
While "Father" could refer to Jacob as the ancestor of the Jews, it more likely refers to our Creator.
Q: In Mal 2:11, what does the phrase "daughter of a foreign god" mean?
A: This poetic expression means the men married women who worshipped idols. In a good Christian marriage, the husband and wife are first devoted to God and then each other. But imagine the wife or husband being devoted first to their pagan god, and then to their spouse. If is hard for a believing wife or husband to share in their partnerís hopes and joys, when they involve religious service to a demon or idol. We are not supposed to marry unbelievers in the first place, as 2 Corinthians 6:14-16 says. But if a believer is already married to an unbelieving spouse, he or she should not try to divorce them, as 1 Corinthians 7:10-16. Rather they should try to bring them to the Lord.
Q: In Mal 2:14-16, should Jews back then not divorce their wives, or divorce their pagan wives as Ezra 10:11-44 implies?
A: Malachi is speaking of Jewish men divorcing their Jewish wives and marrying pagan wives. See
An Exegetical Commentary : Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi by Eugene H. Merrill p.422-423.
Q: In Mal 2:15, what is the correct translation here?
A: The NIV translates this as "Has not the Lord made them one? In flesh and spirit they are his. And why one? Because he was seeking godly offspring...." But in the footnote it gives as an alternate "But the one who is our father did not do this, not as long as life remained in him. And what was he seeking? An offspring from God."
It refers to our father Abraham according to An Exegetical Commentary : Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi by Eugene H. Merrill p.421.
Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties p.305-306 mentions that this is a difficult passage to translate since Hebrew has no case endings; the KJV translators cannot be criticized too harshly for making a mistake here.
Q: In Mal 2:16 (KJV), what does "putting away" mean here?
A: This obscure King James Version expression means to divorce.
Q: In Mal 2:16, why does God hate divorce?
A: Malachi 2 implies that the reason is that God intended for the two to become [and remain] as one. There is often a great heartbreak among adults during a divorce. How much more difficult it can be for the children. 1 Corinthians 7:14 mentions the children as part of the reason a woman should stay married to even an unbelieving husband.
See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.349-350 for more info.
Q: In Mal 2:16, why are divorce and covering oneís garment with violence together here?
A: While divorce can sometimes lead to violence, most of the time it does not. But divorce is often at least one party looking for their own convenience, comfort, or potential opportunities (romantic or otherwise), without caring about the distress and damage to the spouse, children, and family. Likewise, an attitude of violence is looking for a personís own gain with no thought whatsoever to the harm done to others. Both cases are the opposite of love and empathy for others.
Q: In Mal 2:17, how do some peopleís words weary God?
A: Some prayers God answers as "no", because they are not good for us or others. However, other prayers, God has said He will not answer at all, and these apparently are merely wearisome to God. There are at least fourteen reasons why God sometimes does not answer prayer.
1. Not for spending on our passions. James 4:3
2. Requests must be for good things. Matthew 7:11
3. It is not Godís will to have them. Mark 14:36
4. He hears, but we have to wait. Daniel 10:12-14
5. Our prayers are simply vain repetition. Matthew 6:7
6. Yet we have to [meaningfully] persist. Luke 11:5-10, 18:1-7
7. We need self-control, 1 Peter 4:7, or are double-minded. James 1:7,8
8. We have sinned, such as divorce. Malachi 2:13-14
9. We ignore God and His law. Zechariah 7:13; Proverbs 28:9
10. We ignore the cry of the poor. Proverbs 21:13
11. We are inconsiderate of our wives. 1 Peter 3:7
12. God will not hear if they are still worshipping idols Ezekiel 8:8-18
13. Their hands are filled with blood. Isaiah 1:15
14. We cherish sin in our hearts. Psalms 66:18-19, or are wicked Proverbs 15:29; Isaiah 59:1-3; or turn a deaf ear to the poor (Proverbs 21:13). God does not hear us when we choose not to hear God. Zechariah 7:11-14.
Q: In Mal 3:1-3, who are the messengers here?
A: The first messenger is John the Baptist, as shown by Matthew 11:10 and Luke 7:27. Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) in Against Heresies book 3 chapter 11 also says this was John the Baptist. After the Lord is mentioned, the messenger of the covenant here is Jesus Christ according to the New Geneva Study Bible p.1492.
Q: In Mal 3:1, was Jesus Christ an angel?
A: No, not in the normally understood meaning. Jesus was Godís messenger. In the broadest sense, since an angel is a messenger, one could say Jesus performed the role of a messenger/angel. However, in the regular sense, Jesus is not an angel according to Hebrews 1:5,6. Hebrews 2:16-17 shows Jesus took a human nature as opposed to an angelic one. Paul said the Galatians received him as if he were an angel in Galatians 4:14. Paul was not saying he was anything other than human though. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.64 for more info.
11. In Mal 3:5, what are some ways wage earners and widows can be exploited?
A: Wage earners are in contrast to people with so much land or investments that they do not need a day job. Here are at least four things to think about.
1) Consider a negotiation, where you want to buy something from someone who is desperate. You might be able to bargain them down to a low price, but at what point would you not go lower, even though the desperate person would reluctantly agree, because you would be taking advantage of the other person? Some people have no point. You might ask yourself, if God sees your negotiation (and He does), and if others heard of your negotiation, at what point would they stop thinking you were a good negotiator, and think you were heartless and unfair?
2) Sometimes people take advantage of others through fear. I read of a negotiation for land, where there was a structurally unsafe house on it. The sellers made it very clear that the land had a house that could not be safely occupied but had to be torn down. But before the sales was closed, a fire broke out and completely burned down the dilapidated house. SO the lawyer for the buyer stipulated that the land had to be sold for less, because the dilapidated house was no longer there. It was going to be torn down anyway, but the lawyer could use the sellerís fear to take unfair advantage of them.
3) Sometimes a product or service is sold at an agreed-upon price, but after the sale many fees are tacked on that the buyer was unaware of. Also, many investment funds will show their annual returns, but that is before fees. With some funds, fees can take 50% of the profits. It was not what they said that was wrong; it was what they had hidden and failed to disclose that was wrong.
On the other hand, a software contractor big on a job, and lost to a lower bidder. So he re-bid the entire job for just $1. He ended up making a good profit on the work for that client, because of all the change requests. It is OK to have fees and have change requests that are profitable. However, those should be revealed to the potential buyers up front, and not snuck in later.
4) In the ancient world much involved physical labor. While some jobs were not, such as weaving, a widow might not have a man to stand up for here is she was exploited or her wages were withheld. Whenever you are in a position where you can take advantage of somebody, just because you can get away with it, remember that God is watching you, and you will have to give an account for everything you did, and everything you withheld.
Q: Does Mal 3:6, show that God will always communicate with new revelation and scripture, as some Mormons claim?
A: According to When Cultists Ask p.90 Mormons such as Van Gordon claim that since God does not change, and God once used revelation and new scripture, God always does so.
Logically, one should not confuse Godís methods, which can change, from God Himself, who is changeless.
One key attribute of God is that He does not lie (Numbers 23:19; Hebrews 6:18), and God does not contradict Himself. Now some Mormon prophets have given some very strange teaching. For example, Brigham Young preached that "Adam is our God and Father, the only God with whom we have to do (Journal of Discourses volume 1 p.50-51). One should not try to justify strange teachings, including Brigham Youngís, by hiding behind the idea that God has to change.
Q: In Mal 3:8-10, how can people rob the all-knowing, all-powerful God?
A: Obviously, God would not be "robbed" of the praise, honor, and offering He is due unless He allowed Himself to be, by giving us the freedom to chose to do so.
However, God is not mocked, and in the end, nobody will get away with anything.
Q: In Mal 3:10, should believers tithe the money today?
A: Since Christís death and resurrection, Christians are led by the Spirit, not by law (Galatians 5:18). See also Colossians 2:14, so we do not have a "rule" that we have to give exactly ten percent. However, since we have dedicated our lives to Christ, many Christians give more than ten percent, not to follow a rule, but out of love and gratitude for Christ. In a sense "ten percent" defines the basis for generosity in giving. See Now Thatís A Good Question p.436-438 for more info.
Q: Does Mal 3:10 teach that tithing will always pay off for us financially in this life?
A: No. We might end up as materially wealthy as Jesus, Paul, and the rest of the apostles. None of them had any material wealth of which to speak. See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.351-352 for a more extensive answer.
Q: In Mal 3:14, why do some think it is useless to serve God?
A: From an earthly standpoint, many times it is financially foolish and physically dangerous to serve God. Yet, 1 Corinthians 1:18-26 says that Godís wisdom is foolishness to the world. From an eternal perspective, serving God is the wisest long-term investment in the future one can make.
A second point is that it is useless to serve God half-heartedly. As James 1:6-8 says, the double-minded will not receive anything from the Lord.
Q: Do Mal 4:1 and Am 2:9 teach annihilation as some Seventh-Day Adventists say?
A: No. When Malachi 4:1 says the wicked will be burned up as stubble with neither root nor branch. No branches means no descendants, and no root means they are destroyed such that they can never grow again. See 1001 Bible Questions Answered p.153 for more info.
Q: In Mal 4:2, how does the sun of righteousness rise with healing in his wings?
A: There are two applications of this beautiful poetic expression.
Individually, God would forgive them of their sins, and heal them of their unrighteousness.
Corporately, when Godís people turn to Him, God would heal their land, as God promised in 2 Chronicles 7:14.
Q: In Mal 4:3, when and how do believers tread down the wicked?
A: Jude 14-15 says that when Christ comes again in triumph, holy ones will follow after him. However, neither Malachi 4:3 nor Jude say that believers will kill anyone. Malachi 4:3 simply says that we will tread on their ashes.
Q: In Mal 4:5-6, who is this Elijah?
A: This is John the Baptist, according to Jesus in Matthew 11:14 and Matthew 17:12-13.
Q: In Mal 4:5-6, how were the children turned to their fathers and fathers turned to their children?
A: This occurred when many people repented after hearing the message of John the Baptist. People turned back to the ways for their godly forefathers, and they taught their children to do so.
Unfortunately, everyone did not listen to John the Baptist, as Luke 7:29-35 shows.
Q: Does Mal 4:5-6 refer to baptism for the dead, as Mormon president James Talmadge claimed in The Vitality of Mormonism, 71?
A: No, for three reasons.
1. This verse does not refer to baptism, to the dead, or any sacrament or ordinance. Rather, it refers to John the Baptist serving as a forerunner to Jesus, turning the people back to God.
2. Neither Mormons nor others have found any evidence of baptism for the dead in history, until a false religious group called the Serinthians practiced this in Corinth in Paulís day.
3. It is hard to believe that even Mormons would consider this a baptism for the dead. To Mormons baptism for the dead is a secret ceremony, that only Temple Mormons are allowed to view. John was doing this in the open, and skeptical Pharisees and scribes were coming and going while John was baptizing.
See When Cultists Ask p.91-92 for more info.
Q: In Mal, what are some of the earliest manuscripts that still exist today?
A: Dead Sea scrolls: (c.1 B.C.) There are 2 copies of the 12 prophets among the Dead Sea scrolls, called 4Q76 (=4QXIIa) and 4Q78 (=4QXIIc). (The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated p.478-479)
4Q76 contains Malachi 2:10-17; 3:1-24
4Q78 contains Malachi 3:6-7?
The Nahal Hever scroll and the wadi Murabb'at scroll do not contain Malachi.
Overall, preserved in the Dead Sea scrolls are the following verses of Malachi: 2:10-17; 3:1-24. See The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls for more details.
Christian Bible manuscripts, from about 350 A.D., contain the Old Testament, including Malachi. Two of these are Vaticanus (325-250 A.D.) and Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.), where the books of the twelve minor prophets were placed before Isaiah. Malachi is complete in both Vaticanus and Alexandrinus.
Sinaiticus (340-350 A.D.) also has the entire book of Malachi. It starts on the same page as Zechariah ends.
Q: Which early writers referred to Malachi?
A: The Pre-Nicene writers who referenced or alluded to verses in Malachi are the following.
Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) quotes half of Malachi 3:1 1 Clement vol.1 ch.23 p.11
Letter to Diognetus (c.130-200 A.D.) ch.7 p.27 quotes Malachi 3:2 without saying the source.
Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes Malachi 1:10, etc. in Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.28,41 p.208,215
Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Elijah coming before the great and terrible day of the Lord, and incorrectly ascribes this to Zechariah. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.49 p.219
Justin Martyr mentions what Malachi wrote in Scriptures in Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.117 p.258
Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (Implied) mentions the "Old Testament" and lists the books. He does not list the twelve minor prophets individually, but calls them The Twelve. Fragment 4 from the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759
Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) quotes Mal 4:1 as "Malachi the prophet foretold" in Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.37 p.110
Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) in Against Heresies book 4 chapter 10 quotes Malachi 3:10.
Clement of Alexandria quotes Malachi 1:10,11,14 as by "Malachi the prophet" in The Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 4 ch.14 p.475. He also quotes Mal 2:17 as by Malachi in Stromata book 3 ch.4 p.388
Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that Malachi 4:2-3 was by Malachi. On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.31 p.567
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) quotes Malachi 4:2 as "by the mouth of Malachi" in Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.61 p.217
Origen (225-254 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:6 as by Malachi. Origen Against Celsus ch.62 p.602
Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes Malachi 2:5-7 as "in Malachi" in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.5 p.517. In other places he quotes Malachi 1:14; 2:1-2; 2:10; 4:1-2, and other verses.
Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also the prophet Malachi testifies that He is called the Sun, when he says, ĎBut to you that fear the name of the Lord shall the Sun of righteousness arise, and there is healing in His wings. í" Treatise of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.35 p.457
Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes form Malachi 2:5 as "in Malachi" in Treatise of Cyprian Treatise 12 the third ch.20 p.541.
Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Malachi 2:10 (from the Septuagint) as "by the prophet". Dialogue on the True Faith second part section c p.104
Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) alludes to Malachi 4:6, which is also Luke 1:17 in Oration on the Psalms ch.1 p.394.
Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes Mal 3:6 as "by the prophet" in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 2 ch.3 p.298
Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) quotes Mal 1:10,11 as by Malachi in The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109. He also quotes the same verses as by Malachi in The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.48 p.242
Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.)
Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) (Implied because mentions the twelve prophets) "There are, then, of the Old Testament, twenty-two books in number; ... then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book...." Athanasius Easter Letter 39 ch.4 p.552.
Aphrahat the Syrian (337-345 A.D.)
Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.)
Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)
Basil of Cappadocia (357-378 A.D.)
Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:1-3,5 as by Malachi the prophet in Lecture 15 ch.2 p.104
Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.)
Gregory of Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.)
Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) alludes to Malachi as by Malachi. "In order that you may be assured that this is so, the following was written in Malachi, ĎI will reject your offerings, because I have been a witness among you and the women of your youth, that you have been unfaithful to, those who are the women of your covenant. But I will be true with you." Memra 22 ch.19 p.268
Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.)
Rufinus the translator (374-406 A.D.)
John Chrysostom (-407 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:2-3 by Malachi. Vol.9 Letters to the Fallen Theodore ch.12 p.101
Jerome (373-420 A.D.) discusses the books of the Old Testament. He specifically discusses Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, the Pentateuch, Job, Jesus son of Nave [Joshua], Judges, Ruth, Samuel Kings (2 books), twelve prophets, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai,, Zechariah, Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, Letter 53 ch.7-8 p.99-101.
The Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.) wrote an entire commentary on Malachi.
Augustine of Hippo (338-430 A.D.) mentions Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi in The City of God book 17 ch.35 p.380 and book 18 ch.36 p.382
The Semi-Pelagian John Cassian (419-430 A.D.)
Socratesí Ecclesiastical history (c.400-439 A.D.)
Q: In Mal, what are some of the translation differences between the Hebrew and Greek Septuagint?
A: Here is an example from chapter 1, of the differences between the Hebrew Masoretic text and the Greek Septuagint unless otherwise noted.
Mal 1:1 Malachiís name as "my messenger" (Masoretic) vs. "His messenger" (Septuagint, Theodore of Mopsuestia in Commentary on Malachi ch.1 p.398)
Mal 1:1 add "lay it, I pray you, to heart."
Mal 1:3 "made his mountains a desolation, and his inheritance for the jackals of the wilderness." vs. "laid waste his borders, and made his heritage as dwellings of the wilderness."
Mal 1:4 "region of wickedness" vs. "borders of wickedness"
Mal 1:5 "beyond the border" vs. "upon the borders"
Mal 1:7 "defiled you" vs. "polluted it"
Mal 1:7 "the table of LORD, it is to be despised". vs. "The table of the LORD is polluted, and that which was set thereon you have despised."
Mal 1:10 "who is even among you that will shut the doors, and you not kindle fire on My altar in vain!" vs. "Because even among you the doors shall be shut, and one will not kindle the fire of mine altar for nothing"
Mal 1:11 "For from the east to the west, My name shall be great among the nations, and everywhere incense shall be offered to My name; and a pure food offering. For My name shall be great among the nations, says Jehovah of hosts." vs. "For from the rising of the sun even to the going down thereof my name has been glorified among the Gentilesí and in every place incense is offered to my name, and a pure offering: for my name is great among the Gentiles, says the Lord Almighty." (Septuagint) vs. "from the rising sun unto the setting my Name has been made famous among all the nations, says the Lord Almighty: and in every place they offer clean sacrifice to my Name" (Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) An answer to the Jews chapter 5, and Against Marcion book 3 chapter 22 and book 4 chapter 2)
Mal 1:12 "and its fruit, His food" vs. "and its food"
Mal 1:13 "plunder" vs. "torn victims"
Mal 1:13 "and you bring" vs. "if then you bring"
Mat 1:14 "but cursed be a deceiver" vs. "cursed is the man who had the power"
Mal 1:14 "my name is to be feared" vs. "my name is to be glorious"
Mal 2:3 "and he shall bear you to it" (Masoretic) vs. "and I will put you out of my presence" (Septuagint, Syriac)
Mal 2:12 "to arouse or answer" vs. "to witness or answer"
Mal 3:1 "clear the way" vs. "survey the way"
Mal 3:4 "cursing" (Masoretic) vs. "gazing" (Septuagint, Theodore of Mopsuestia in Commentary on Malachi ch.3 p.419)
Mal 4:2-3 "...And you shall go out and frisk like calves of the stall. And you shall tread under the wicked ..." vs. "...and ye shall go forth, and bound as young calves let loose from bonds. And ye shall trample the wicked;" (Septuagint) vs. "Ye shall go forth," (says Malachi), "from your sepulchers, as young calves let loose from their bonds, and ye shall tread down your enemies." (Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) in On the Resurrection of the Flesh chapter 31). See also Justin Martyrís Dialogue with Trypho (written c.138-165 A.D.) chapter 117, and Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) Against Heresies book 4 chapter 17.
Mal 2:3 "He will carry you unto it" vs. "I will carry you away from beside me" (Septuagint and Syriac)
Mal 2:12 "awake" vs. "unto/until"
Note that in the Hebrew Bible, what Christians call Malachi 4:1-6 is considered Malachi 3:19-24 by Jews.
Mal 3:1 "clear the way" vs. "survey the way"
Bibliography for this question: the Hebrew translation is from Jay P. Greenís Literal Translation and the Septuagint rendering is from Sir Lancelot C.L. Brentonís translation of The Septuagint : Greek and English. The Expositor's Bible Commentary, An Exegetical Commentary, and the footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bibles also were used.
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