Islam: Warlike or Peaceful?
October 2009 version
The Ayatollah Khomeini taught, "Islam says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to Paradise, which can be opened only for Holy Warriors! There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and Hadiths [sayings of the Prophet] urging Muslims to value war and to fight. Does all that mean that Islam is a religion that prevents men from waging war? I spit upon those foolish souls who make such a claim." quoted from Ibn Warraq Why I am Not A Muslim Prometheus Books 1995 p.11-12. (p.381) Amir Taheri. Holy Terror. London, 1987. p.226-227. Now one has to admit it would be easy for non-Muslims to jump to the conclusion that Islam exists mainly because of the sword, and is warlike. Yet many Muslims say that is not true Islam; true Islam is a religion of peace. How can someone objectively learn which of the two views is correct? One must recognize there are different Muslim voices claiming to speak for Islam, so let’s rephrase the question: how can someone objectively learn which view Mohammed and the earliest Muslims would say is the original, genuine Islam? One way to find an answer is to ask Muslims what they think, and ask them for an explanation of these teachings of Mohammed. Ask a Muslim
The Ayatollah Khomeini taught, "Islam says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to Paradise, which can be opened only for Holy Warriors! There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and Hadiths [sayings of the Prophet] urging Muslims to value war and to fight. Does all that mean that Islam is a religion that prevents men from waging war? I spit upon those foolish souls who make such a claim." quoted from Ibn Warraq Why I am Not A Muslim Prometheus Books 1995 p.11-12. (p.381) Amir Taheri. Holy Terror. London, 1987. p.226-227.
Now one has to admit it would be easy for non-Muslims to jump to the conclusion that Islam exists mainly because of the sword, and is warlike. Yet many Muslims say that is not true Islam; true Islam is a religion of peace. How can someone objectively learn which of the two views is correct? One must recognize there are different Muslim voices claiming to speak for Islam, so let’s rephrase the question: how can someone objectively learn which view Mohammed and the earliest Muslims would say is the original, genuine Islam?
One way to find an answer is to ask Muslims what they think, and ask them for an explanation of these teachings of Mohammed.
Ask a Muslim
Sura 9:29 in the Qur’an says, "Fight those who believe not… even if they be People of the book [Christians and Jews] until they have willingly agreed to pay the Jizya tribute in recognition of their submissive state."
Now one Muslim explained that verses like this in the Qur’an have been "abrogated" and are no longer to be obeyed today. However, the conservative Muslims appear to never have gotten the message that they were abrogated. My question then is: when were they abrogated, by whom, and what evidence can they show the conservative Muslims that they are not supposed to be warlike today.
Offensive, not just Defensive: Bukhari Hadith vol.4 no.196 p.124 "Narrated abu Huraira : Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,’ and whoever says, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,’ his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic laws and his accounts will be with Allah, (either to punish him or to forgive him.)’"
Attacks on unsuspecting, peaceful people: "Ibn ‘Aun reported : I wrote to Nafi’ inquiring from him whether it was necessary to extend (to the disbelievers) an invitation to accept (Islam) before engaging them in fight. He wrote (in reply) to me that it was necessary in the early days of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a raid upon Banu Mustaliq while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others." Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4292.
To understand some of the context of this, here is the hadith after that: "Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from then and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhajirs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai’ [(property abandoned by fleeing non-Muslims] except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers.) If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya [tax]. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them." Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4294
In Mohammed’s lifetime the Muslims made a surprise attack on an unsuspecting Christian king [chieftain] of Dumah, killing his brother. al-Tabari vol.9 p.58-59
"By Him in Whose Hands my soul is but for Jihad (i.e. holy battles), Hajj, and my duty to serve my mother, I would have loved to die as a slave." (Abu Huraira is speaking in Bukhari vol.3 no.724 p.435.) ["Holy battles" is in the text of the English translation by Muslims.]
Sheer Volume: Around 926 hadiths in the Bukhari Hadiths and 181 hadiths in Sahih Muslim (that is over 710 pages in English and Arabic) leave no doubt that Jihad is fighting for Allah. In Bukhari, 97% of Jihad references are for war, and 3% are inner struggle. The 69 pages in Sahih Muslim mention just military fighting and collecting booty (both captured after battle and abandoned).
Violent: Sura 9:13-14 says, "Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and attacked you first? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe. Fight/kill them, and Allah will punish/torment them by your hands. He will disgrace/humiliate them and give you victory over them…" The 29th saying in the An-Nawawi hadith also says that the peak of Islam’s prominence is Holy War. While this could refer to revenge and/or self defense Sura 9:123 has no qualification whatsoever.
Sura 9:123: "O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you, and let them find harshness in you and know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto him)"
Ka'b bin Ashraf the Jew was deceptively assassinated in Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4436 (p.990-991) Bukhari vol.3 no.687 p.415; Bukhari vol.4 no.271 p.168. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2762 p.775
Abdullah bin 'Atik and some other Muslims were sent to assassinate Abu Rafi the Jew. He was attacked in the dark while he was sleeping. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.371 p.251-252. An assassin broke his leg escaping, but Mohammed miraculously healed it.
Is Jihad Just Striving After Righteousness?
Fighting is jihad. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2503-2504 p.693
Fight out of anger for Allah and his Apostle. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2531 p.705
Horses are more useful for Jihad than mules. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1921 p.711
Western Muslims have been told, and have told others, that Jihad is striving after righteousness, nothing more. While Jihad does mean that to the Ahmadiyya and other groups, the previous quotes show that a person claiming Jihad does not include warlike action is either uninformed or else deliberately not true to the teaching of Mohammed.
Submit to the Religion of Peace
If you want to follow the religion of peace, great, but be sincere. Muslims and Christians agree that Jesus never said to attack anyone or kill anyone. While Romans shows that the state has the right to bear the sword against evildoers, in the New Testament we are not to kill anyone because they have a different religion.
The Crusades (Christian Jihads) of centuries past were not based on the teaching of Jesus; rather they were an evil thing Europeans learned from Muslim armies. All Jihads are wrong, whether they are Christian or Muslim. We should try to be at peace with all men, but we more importantly have peace with God.
How to Have Peace with God
God’s Word, the Bible, shows that God is Holy and punishes sin. He is loving, but not at the expense of His justice and holiness.
We are born "at war" with God. Ever since the fall of Adam and Eve, we all have a sinful nature. We have a desire to live selfish lives, to seek riches, pleasure, and fame more than God. Not only can pictures and stones be idols, but materialism, lusts, and the opinion of others can be an idol standing between us and God. Perhaps one of the more common idols today is religion. Not only strange unusual religions, but any religion that a person would rather follow, even if it was not from God. God will never compromise and let these sins into His perfect Heaven.
God is not loving at the expense of His justice and holiness, but love triumphs over judgment. When all of man’s options to reach a holy God fell short, God reached down to us. In a miracle only an all-powerful God could do, God came down to earth as a man, Jesus Christ, and paid the penalty for our sins by dying on the cross. Not only did God provide forgiveness for all who accept this wonderful gift, but God will purify all of His own so that they can enter Heaven. A just God could not be capricious and just wink at sin, but God satisfied the demands of justice by Jesus, the sinless one, taking the punishment for us.
You need to respectfully talk with God, and ask Him to show you the truth. You need to ask Jesus into your heart as your Lord and Savior. We would love to talk with you about this, so contact us at www.MuslimHope.com God bless.
What is Jihad? - From a Muslim Perspective, and Mohammed’s Words
Muslims assume the Qur’an was all true, and Mohammed’s teachings were correct. Given this assumption, what do you think of the argument of a Muslim presented below?
This paper simply contains quotes excepted from: Khilafah Magazine December 2001 Edition. (These are all direct quotes except for some bolding and italics.) The entire text was also on the web sitewww.Khilafah.com.
The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) stated in one hadith, "The head of its matter is Islam and its pillar is the Salah and its highest peak is the Jihad."
The discussion concerning Jihad is taking place throughout the Ummah and indeed many misunderstandings and distortions, some deliberate, have come forth. Some of these have been propagated by the likes of the government scholars both in the West and in the Muslim World, such as Jihad an-Nafs, Jihad against oneself and Jihad as a defensive war only. …
Myth: Jihad is only defensive
Another distortion that is promoted is the idea that Jihad is only defensive. The protagonists of this idea again utilise certain misinterpretations to justify their positions.
"Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress the limits. For Allah loves not the transgressors" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: [Sura 2] 190].
"And if they incline to peace, you incline to it also, and trust in Allah. Verily! He is the hearer, the knower" [TMQ Al-A’raf: 61].
These two verses however, cannot abrogate the 119 other verses of Qur’an that suggest that Jihad is not merely limited to defensive war alone. These 119 verses, which are general and absolute, indicate that Jihad encompasses all of the following types of war:
…The verses concerning Jihad were revealed as general and absolute without limitation. Accordingly an evidence from Shari’ah is required to limit these verses concerning Jihad. However there are no evidences from Qur’an or Sunnah that place limitations on Jihad. Thus, Jihad encompasses all of the aforementioned types of war.
There are many verses concerning Jihad that could be drawn upon to illustrate this understanding. It is sufficient to focus on Surah At-Taubah (Repentance), which is one of the last Surahs to be revealed. Thus no one can claim that the verses are abrogated, limited or specified by later revelations.
"Fight against such of those who have been given the scripture as believe not in Allah nor the last day, and forbid not that which Allah hath-forbidden by his messenger, and follow not the Deen of truth, until they pay the Jizya readily, being brought low" [TMQ At-Taubah: (Sura 9) 29]. [Jizya is extra tax non-Muslims must pay]
"…And wage war on all the idolaters as they are waging war on all of you, and know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto him)" [TMQ At-Taubah: 36].
"O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with them, their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey's end" [TMQ At-Taubah: 73].
"Verily! Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the garden will be theirs: they shall fight in the way of Allah and shall slay and be slain. It is a promise which is binding on him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. Whoever fulfils his covenant better than Allah? Rejoice then in your bargain that you have made, for that is the supreme triumph" [TMQ At-Taubah: 111].
"O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you, and let them find harshness in you and know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto him)" [TMQ At-Taubah: 123]. … [Rashid, the author, then lists many details of these verses, which are self-evident to the objective reader.]
These verses of At-Taubah were revealed under certain circumstances. The following verses chronologically precede these verses of Surah At-Taubah. They provide an insight into the circumstances in which Surah At-Taubah was revealed.
"Let not the unbelievers think that they can outstrip (Allah's purpose). Verily! They cannot escape" [TMQ: At-Taubah: 2]. …
When we examine the verses of Jihad we see that they refer to the same subject but in different situations. …
Hence according to As-Sadi and Ibn Zaid it is incorrect to say that the "sword verses" abrogate the "peace verses". Abu Bakr Ibn Arabi in his Tafseer of the Qur’an, Ahkam ul Qur’an comments; "The answer here differs…Allah says, ‘don't weaken, don't call for peace whilst you have the upper hand. If Muslims are mighty with strength, invincible, and numerous in groups let there be no peace’ [TMQ Muhammad: 35]."
Thus peace may be accepted but not if Muslims have the upper hand. In addition to the evidences of the Qur’an, Sunnah and Ijma-as Sahabah present clear evidences of the reality of Jihad. …
In the nine years that followed the Hijrah to Madinah (where permission was given to fight) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) personally led 28 military campaigns, and during the same period the Companions (ra) embarked on another 51 military campaigns.
If one looks in detail at these expeditions and battles one finds clear evidence that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the companions undertook both defensive and offensive action. The battles of Uhud and Ahzab are clear examples of defensive battles - on the other hand, Tabuk and Mutah are clear examples of offensive wars. Indeed the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) took part in thirteen expeditions and eleven major battles in which he took the initiative and launched offensive action. Likewise of the 51 Sariyah (campaigns), 39 were offensive. How can one say, therefore, that Jihad is only defensive?
… Transgression would also arise if a nation was attacked without first calling them to Islam. Muslims are ordained to call their enemies to Islam before fighting against them. If they refuse, Muslims should call them again to pay Jizya and submit to the laws of Allah (Subhanahu Wa ta’ala)….
Jihad is the removal of obstacles, by force if necessary, that stand between people and Islam. It is the practical method of spreading Islam. The call to Islam is compulsory on Muslims. Jihad is included within this compulsory action. Like the call, Jihad is to be performed by the nation (Ummah).
Jihad is continuous and will always be so. This is an obligation imposed on Muslims by Shari’ah. … The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) stated, "This Deen will never cease to exist. A party of the Muslims shall always fight for it until the Hour comes to pass" [Al Jami us Sahih of Imam Muslim].
A Christian’s Conclusion
This Muslim author has a logical argument, - if one accepts the Muslim assumption that a true prophet of God ordered attacking Jews and Christians, - who Mohammed said had the same God. Does it not seem a little strange that Jesus, the prince of peace who never commanded anyone to kill anybody, is claimed as a prophet by Muslims for leaving us the opposite message? The message of Jesus was "hijacked" by Mohammed and Islam. Even Muslims must agree the Jesus’ message was "hijacked", one way or another.
Either: what we have in the Bible is far from what God wanted,
Otherwise: What they have from Mohammed is far from what God wanted.
One of those has to be true. How would an objective person, either Muslim, Christian, or other, be able to tell which was the truth?
For more info contactwww.MuslimHope.com
Note: at-Taubah is Sura 9, Al-A’raf is Sura 7, Baqarah is Sura 2, Muhammad is Sura 47.
The Campaigns of Mohammed
"It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah [Mohammed] said: I have been commanded that I should fight against people till they declare that there is no god but Allah…" Sahih Muslim vol.1 no.32 p.17
Al-‘Abbas bin Ubadah said, "In swearing allegiance to him [Mohammed], you are pledging yourselves to wage war on all mankind." al-Tabari vol.6 p.134
"It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah said I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer, and pay Zakat…" Sahih Muslim vol.1 no.33 p.17
Number of Campaigns
Some say Islam means peace. Actually the word means submission at least as much as peace. Regardless though, look at these campaigns to judge for yourself if the original practice of Islam means peace.
Mohammed fought 19 battles. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4465,4466 (p.1005) Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.285 (p.195).
Mohammed conducted 19 military campaigns and he (actually) fought in eight of them. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4467 (p.1005)
Hum Atiyya took part with Mohammed himself in seven battles Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4462 (p.1004)
The footnote in Sahih Muslim vol.1 on p.1005 says there is disagreement on this. It says Mohammed himself participated in 26, and there were 56 others where he did not personally participate.
The Translator’s commentary in Sahih Muslim vol.3 p.941 gives war statistics. It says there were 82 encounters 1018 people killed: including 259 Muslims and 759 non-Muslims. This does not count the 700-1000 Mohammed had beheaded at Khaibar.
Abu Lubabah knew that Sa’d would probably have the banu Quraizah put to death. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 2766 p.942. This is the context of Sura 8:27.
Description of Some Campaigns
The order of campaigns presented here is not necessarily chronological order, because there are disagreements among scholars on the order.
Sif al-Bahr expedition led by Hamzah month 9 A.H. 1 according to al-Qaqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
Rabigh/Ahya led by ‘Ubaydah expedition in month 10 A.H. 1 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
Al-Kharrar expedition led by Sa’d. Month 11 year 1 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix.
1st battle (Ghazwat): Al-Abwa’ / Waddan led by Mohammed in month 2 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.285 prior (p.195). See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
2nd battle (Ghazwat): Buwat 200 Muslim emigrants led by Mohammed attacked 100 Meccans in the caravan. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.285 prior (p.195) month 3 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
A camel raid sent by Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.14
Safawan was a punitive expedition led by Mohammed in month 6 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
3rd battle (Ghazwat): Al-'Ashira/Al-'Ashiru/al-‘Ushayrah led by Mohammed Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.285 prior, 285 (p.195) Month 6 A.H. 2 according to al-Waqidi. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xix
At the Battle of Badr in 624 A.D. (A.H. 3), 89 Muslim emigrants plus 239 Ansaris under Mohammed fought the Meccans under Abu Sufyan. The Muslims won with 14 killed. 70 Meccans were killed, and 70 taken captive. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4394 p.975-976, Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4341 p.951 vol.3 no.4360 p.960-961 (17 Ramadan, 2 A.H.) Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.462 p.323. ‘Ali received one she-camel as his share of war booty after Badr. Bukhari vol.4 no.324 p.206. The number of Muslims fighting at Badr was actually 240 Ansaris and 60 Emigrants according to Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.292 p.201.
15-day siege and expulsion of the Jewish Banu Qaynuqa’ tribe from Medina in 624 A.D. (A.H 3). The Muslims had a treaty with these people prior to this. The stated purpose of the expulsion was because they had said, "Muhammad has not met anyone who is good at fighting. Had he met us, he would have had a battle which would be unlike a battle with anyone else." They also infringed the contract in various [unspecified] ways. Details of this are in al-Tabari vol.7 p.85-88.
Assassination of Ka’b bin al-Ashraf by five Muslims. He was a Meccan with a Jewish mother and pagan Arab father. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix. According to al-Waqidi in al-Tabari vol.7 p.101 al-Ashraf was assassinated before the battle of Uhud. See also Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2762 p.775.
Abdullah bin 'Atik and some other Muslims were sent to assassinate Abu Rafi Sallam bin abi Al-Huqayq, the Jew. They attacked him in the dark while he was sleeping. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.371 (p.251-253) He broke his leg escaping, but Mohammed miraculously healed it. You can also read about this in detail in al-Tabari vol.7 p.99-105. They spared his wife according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.101,103.
This Abu Rafi is not to be confused a Copt of the same name (Abu Rafi’), who later became a Muslim. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2752 p.770
Battle of Uhud (3/25/625 A.D. 3 A.H.) was a defensive battle the Muslims lost. Abu Sufyan and 3,000 Meccans marched against Medina. 700 men had coats of mail, and there were 200 cavalry. Mohammed had 1,000 men, of which 300 under ‘Abd Allah bin Ubayy returned to Medina prematurely. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4413 (p.984-985) Mohammed was wounded there Bukhari vol.4 no.159 (p.102). vol.5 no.400 (p.277) vol.5 no.151 (p.102).
When Mohammed was wounded, Talhah saved his life at the Battle of Uhud. al-Tabari vol.15 footnote 375 p.202
The souls of those who died at Uhud were put in the crops [stomachs] of green birds in Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2514 p.699
During the Battle of Uhud, Mohammed wore two coats of mail as double protection. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2584 p.217
The al-Sawiq (Barley-meal) raid was a defensive action led by Mohammed in 624 A.D. (A.H. 2). It is disputed whether al-Sawiq was before or after the expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa’. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix and p.88 for more info.
Expedition to Qarqarat al-Kudr led by Mohammed in 624 A.D (A.H. 2). They drove off the livestock, but no one died. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.88-89 for more info. al-Tabari vol.14 140 says Qarqarat was about 6 miles outside of Khaybar.
Expedition to Najd (=Dhu Amarr) against the Ghatafan tribe in A.H. 3. (625 A.D.) No one died though. al-Tabari vol.7 p.93.
Muslims under Ghalib bin ‘Abd Allah al-Laythi raided the Banu Sulaym and Ghatafan, killing some of the enemy and taking their livestock. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.89 and p.xxix for more info.
Al-Qaradah raid on a caravan led by Mohammed’s adopted son Zayd. One-fifth of the booty, which Mohammed took, was 20,000 dirhams. See al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxix,99
Expedition to Dumat al-Jandal in 627 A.D. (A.H. 5) al-Tabari vol. 8 p.4 footnote 17.
Battle of the Ditch/Trench (Ahzab) (=Battle of Khandaq) in 627 A.D. (A.H. 5). Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4412 p.983-984. This was a defensive battle when the Meccans attacked Medina. At the advice of Salman al-Farisi (al-Farisi means The Persian), Mohammed ordered a wide ditch to be dug for defense.
Skirmish of Dhu Qarad against the Bani Fazarah. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4449 p.995 (probably three days before the battle of Khaibar). Dhu Qarad was about a day’s ride from Medina.
Khaibar (Qurayzah tribe) in 627 A.D. (6 A.H.) Bukhari vol.1 no.208 p.138; vol.1 no.214 p.140; Sahih Muslim vol.1 no.209 p.65; Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4437,4438,4439 p.992-993. Mohammed was there Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.515 p.364; vol.5 book 59 no.262 p.241.
al-Tabari vol.5 p.165, vol.8 p.27-28. They were besieged for 25 nights according to al-Tabari vol.8 p.30. See also al-Tabari vol.39 p.130
An expedition before Dhat al-Riqa’ according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv.
Battle of Dhat ur Riqa/ Dhat al-Riqa’ in A.H. 4 Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.1830 p.401 vol.3 no.4471 p.1005. Unsure when this took place, though al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv says A.H. 4. Regardless, it was after Khaibar according to Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.prior to 450 (p.310-311). Muslims were killed here.
The Battle of Dhat al-Riqa was in 5 A.H. according to Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 641 p.322
Dhat al-Riqa = Battle of Najd. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 643 p.323
Mohammed was present there. Sunan Nasa’i vol.2 no.1540 p.321; vol.2 no.1542 p.322; vol.2 no.1546 p.324.
Dhat al-Riqa was two days from Medina. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 645 p.324
Raji’ was a failed expedition in A.H. 4 after Dhat ur Riqa according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv. Muslims were killed here.
Bi’r Ma’unah was a failed expedition in A.H. 4 after Raji’ according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv. Muslims were killed here.
Badr al-Maw’id (=Barley-meal raid II) was a minor skirmish in A.H. 4 after Bi’r Ma’unah according to al-Tabari vol.7 p.xxxiv.
Expelling the Banu al-Nadir tribe in A.H. 5.
Expedition to Najd Sahih Muslim vol3 no.4330,4331,4332 (p.949) Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.458 (p.315)
Battle of Bu'ath Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.1938,1942 p.420.
Battle of Tabuk Bukhari vol.2 no.559 p.325 was an offensive war. A.H. 9 (630/631 A.D.) See al-Tabari vol.9 p.46-48. Mohammed stayed at Tabuk 20 days. Abu Dawud vol.1 no.1231 p.319.
Invite or fight. In A.H. 10, Mohammed sent Khalid bin al-Walid to Balharith to invite them to Islam for three days before he fought them. They converted, and nobody died. al-Tabari vol.9 p.82. Note that before Mecca was conquered, Kalid b. Walid was a chief of unbelievers. Abu Dawud vol.1 no.1232 p.320.
Surprise attack on the Bi'l-Mustaliq (=Balmustaliq) tribe in 627/628 A.D (5/6 A.H.) without any warning while they made the "mistake" of heedlessly grazing their cattle. They were said to have had "excellent Arab women" that the Muslim soldiers had sex with afterwards. Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.3371 p.733-734. Mohammed got his wife Juwairiya as a captive from them. Bukhari vol.3 book 46 ch.13 no.717 p.431-432. Also al-Tabari vol.8 p.51-56.
Mohammed attacked the Banu al-Mustaliq while they were inattentive and their cattle were drinking water. That was when Juwairiyyah bint al-Harith was obtained." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.227 p.727-728.
Mohammed himself led the raid on the Banu Mustaliq tribe. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57
Abu Sa’d al-Khudri was 15 years old when he went on a raid of the Banu Mustaliq with Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.39 p.57
Expedition against the Banu Lihyan tribe in 627 A.D (6 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.42-43
Expedition against Dhu Qarad in 627/628 A.D. (6 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.43-44
Zayd b. Harithah’s army raided al-Fadafid, rounded up the men and cattle, and killed al-Hunayd and his son and three others in 10 A.H. al-Tabari vol.9 p.100-101.
War against the Juhaina tribe Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.1827 p.400.
Zayd/Zaid bin harith led a raiding party to al-Jamum. al-Tabari vol.8 p.93
‘Umar and 30 men raided the "rear" of Hawazan at Turabah. The non-Muslims fled without any fighting. al-Tabari vol.8 p.131
Bashir b. Sa’d and 30 men raided the Banu Murah at Fadak. Bashir was wounded, and his companions were killed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.132. Note that on p.123,129 the booty became exclusively Mohammed’s because camels and horses had not been spurred against it.
Bashir b. Sa’d raided the Ghatafan at Yumm and Jinab. This was prompted by Mohammed’s guide claiming there was a large gathering of Ghatafan at al-Hinab were preparing to march against Mohammed. Notice that a raiding party was sufficient to defeat the supposedly "large" hostile gathering. al-Tabari vol.8 p.133
The raid of Abi al-‘Awja al-Sulami. al-Tabari vol.8 p.138
Shuja’ bin Wahb and 24 men raided the Banu ‘Amir and took camels and sheep. "The shares [of booty] came to fifteen camels for each man." al-Tabari vol.8 p.143
Expedition of Dhat al-Salasil in 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.146-147
A.H. 8 ‘Amr bin al-‘As and 300 men raided al-Salasil of the tribe of Quda’h. al-Tabari vol.8 p.146
There was a house called Dhu’l-Khalasa or Al-Ka’ba Al-Yamaniya, and Mohammed asked Jarir to "relieve him" of it. Jarir and 150 horse-riders "dismantled it and killed whoever was present there. "Then I came to the Prophet and informed him, and he invoked good upon us and Al-Ahmas (tribe)." Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.641-642 p.450-451
Expedition of al-Khabat in 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) al-Tabari vol.8 p.147-148
Abu ‘Ubaydah b. al-Jarrah and 300 riders raided the tribe of Juhaynah at al-Khabat in A.H. 8. al-Tabari vol.8 p.146. This is also called the Ghazwa of the sea coast in Bukhari vol.5 book 59 chapter 64 and vol.5 book 59 no.646-648 p.454-457. Probably the same as the expedition where they ate a dead whale for a month in Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3831 p.1079.
Expedition to Mu’tah in Aug./Sept. 629/630 A.D. (8 A.H.) where 3,000 Muslims fought and lost against allegedly 100,000 Byzantines. al-Tabari vol.8 p.152-153. The few survivors may have counted the 100,000 rather quickly.
Dispersing of booty and raiding the tribe of Abil. al-Tabari vol.10 p.17
Ja’far al-Tayyar, ‘Ali’s brother died in the battle of Mu’tah. al-Tabari vol.11 p.141 footnote 767
Day of Victory over Mecca Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.3139 p.682. 10,000 Muslims conquered Mecca. al-Tabari vol.8 p.168. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.574 p.400
Battle of Hunain/Hunayn 1-2/28/630 (8 A.H.) Sahih Muslim vol.2 (p.491,505) vol.3 no.4340 p.950; vol.3 no.4385 p.972-973; vol.4 no.6092; Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2495 p.692. al-Tabari vol.12 footnote 20 p.7
The tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif advanced toward Mecca Saturday 6 Shawwal 8.H.
At Hunain the enemy were called polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3188 p.907.
During the Battle of Hunayn, Mohammed kept reciting "Verily, without a doubt I am a Prophet. I am from the children of Abdul Muttalib." Tirmidhi’s Shamaa-il ch.36 no.4
Mohammed borrowed 30 to 40 coats of mail before the Battle of Hunain from Safwan. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3555-3557 p.1010.
Battle of Ta'if Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4393 p.974-975.
Battle of Hawazin Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4344 p.952.
Battle against the Fazara Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4345 p.953.
- - - - - After Mohammed died - - - - -
Battle of Jamal (the Camel) 656 A.D. 35 A.H. ‘Aisha and two generals, Talha and al-Zubair) who two of the ten companions of the prophet who were promised paradise. They rebelled against ‘Ali but lost. Talha and Zubair were killed by the other Muslim army, yet they were promised Paradise by Mohammed.
30K for ‘Aisha fought 20K for ‘Ali. 10K died at the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.17 p.164.
Talhah’s son, named Mohammed, was also killed at the Battle of the Camel. al-Tabari vol.39 p.315
At the Battle of the Camel both sides were heavily armored, so both sides concentrated on hacking off limbs. al-Tabari vol.17 p.135
Battle of Siffin 7/657 Sahih Muslim vol.2 footnote 1430 (p.509) Muslims supporting ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah fought each other.
Massacre at Harra (63 A.H.) Sahih Muslim vol.2 footnote 1175 p.421.
The Battle of Harrah, when Medina was plundered, was either 8/27/683 A.D. (p.208) or 8/28/684 A.D.. al-Tabari vol.19 p.217.
Caliph Yazid sent 12,000 Muslims to devastate Medina in 63 A.H. after ‘Abdullah bin Hanzala revolted. There were horrifying atrocities, plunder, massacre, and many women were raped. Sahih Muslim vol.3 footnote 2314 p.1031
Karbala (680 A.D. 61 A.H.) ‘Ali’s son Husayn/Husain had 32-45 horsemen and 40-100 foot soldiers. ‘Umar did not want to kill al-Husayn, but ‘Ubaydallah gave him no choice and al-Husayn did not submit. al-Tabari vol.19 p.75. Husayn’s head was sent to Damascus as a trophy.
After the battle of Karbala, the Muslim soldiers supporting Yazid forcibly disrobed the Muslim women supporting Husayn. al-Tabari vol.19 p.161
In Africa there is a poem in Swahili of the sacrificial passion of ‘Ali that is 4,000 lines long. (Textual Sources for the Study of Islam 1987 p.22)
For more info contactwww.MuslimHope.com
More on War In Islam
"Death is beneath the spears and Paradise between the flashing swords." ‘Ammar bin Yasir quoted this at the Battle of Siffin right before he died. al-Tabari vol.17 p.65. The Battle of Siffin was a bloody battle between ‘Ali and Mu’awiya.
In the time of Hasan and Husain, a man said he had obeyed his imam and been faithful to his oath of allegiance. A woman told him he had been disobedient to God and obeyed the imam in bringing destruction. "You have acquired shame and the punishment of Hell-fire. Indeed, God has said: ‘We have made them imams, who summon people to Hell-fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped.’ Your imam is one of those." al-Tabari vol.19 p.102
"I head the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: There would arise at the end of the age a people who would be young in age and immature in thought, but they would talk (in such a manner) as if their words are the best among the creatures. They would receive the Qur'an, but it would not go beyond their throats, and they would pass through the religion as an arrow goes through the prey. So when you meet them, kill them, for in their killing you would bet a reward with Allah on the Day of Judgment." Sahih Muslim vol.2 no.2328 p.514.
Mohammed had predatory expeditions against Quareshi caravans, according to Sahih Muslim vol.4 footnote 2767 p.1316
Individual Executions for Criticizing Mohammed
(From other sources)
After the Battle of Badr An-Nadr ibn al-Harith was executed for having formerly ridiculed the Qur'an and reciting Persian legends in their stead which he claimed were more beautiful than Muhammad's oracles. Although the Qur'an boldly invites anyone who challenges its authenticity to produce similar passages to rival it (Surah 11.13 and 2:23), not many people would want to try if Mohammed was going to kill them.
Al-Harith ibn Suwayd ibn Samit was another opponent murdered at Muhammad's instigation. This set off something of a chain reaction. One Abu Afak, annoyed at the incident, composed a satire defending the ancestors of those who were disaffected at the Prophet which prompted him to respond "Who will deal with this rascal for me?" at which another of his companions, Salim ibn `Umayr, went forth and slaughtered him. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasulullah, p.675). In reply to this `Asma bint Marwan, another resident of Medina disenchanted with Islam, composed a satire charging her fellow townsmen of the Aus and Khazraj "You obey a stranger who is none of yours ... Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise and cut off the hopes of those who expect aught from him?" When Muhammad heard this he said "Who will rid me of Marwan's daughter?" at which `Umayr ibn `Adiy al-Khatmi immediately crept into her house and murdered her. On his return he confirmed that he had killed her at which Muhammad was greatly pleased and said to him "You have greatly helped God and his Apostle, O `Umayr!" (op. cit., p.676).
(end from other sources)
One women of the Banu Quraizah was executed. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2665 Footnote 2017 p.739 explains this by saying "she used to abuse the Prophet (may peace be upon him). Hence she was killed." In other words, since she had said bad things about Mohammed she was assassinated.
It was OK to kill women and children when attacking the settlements of polytheists at night. However, afterwards Mohammed prohibited it. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2666 p.739-740.
On conquering Mecca Mohammed wanted to kill four people, two of them singing girls. One was killed and the other escaped and later became a Muslim [presumably to save her life]. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2678 p.744.
There were two singing girls who sang songs reviling Mohammed. One had her hand cut off and her front tooth pulled out. Al-Mujahir did this, but Abu Bakr wrote that if he had not done this, Abu Bakr would have had her killed. Abu Bakr said that if anyone claiming to be a Muslim did this, they were actually an apostate. If any non-Muslim did this while claiming to be at peace with Muslims, they were actually at war with them and a traitor. al-Tabari vol.10 p.191-192
See the page on assassinations for info on that topic.
…But He Spared the Children, Except in Night Raids
Mohammed did not kill the children of the enemy. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4456,4457,4458 p.1002-1003. al-Tabari vol.7 p. 102,104 also mentions a prohibition against killing women and children. al-Tabari vol.14 p.84 also says they did not kill minor children. Bukhari vol.4 no.257 p.159 and vol.4 no.258 p.160 also disapproves of killing women. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2858 p.195 mentions not killing children.
"Set out for Jihad in the name of Allah and for the sake of Allah. Do not lay hands on the old verging death, on women, children, and babes." Sahih Muslim vol.3 Introduction p.940
In battle Muslims should not kill women and children Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2662 p.739 or women and hired servants. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2663 p.739.
Kill old men who are polytheists, but not their children. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2664 p.739.
Do not deface in killing, do not kill a child, decrepit old man, or a woman. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2607-2608 p.723.
"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade those who fought ibn Abi Huqayq (a treacherous Jew from Madina) to kill women and children. He said that one of the men fighting had said, ‘The wife of ibn Abi Huqayq began screaming and I repeatedly raised my sword against her. Then I would remember the prohibition of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so I would stop. Had it not been for that, we would have been rid of her." Muwatta’ Malik 21.3.8
Mohammed "saw the corpse of a woman who had been slain in one of the raids, and he disapproved of it and forbade the killing of women and children." Muwatta’ Malik 21.3.9
Abu Bakr advised Yazid not to kill women, children, aged, or infirm. Muwatta’ Malik 21.3.10
Mohammed appointed Abu Bakr to lead a night raid against polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2632 p.729.
Mohammed said killing women and children of polytheists is OK in night raids. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4322 p.947.
The army should not kill the young or the very old. al-Tabari vol.10 p.16
At Khaibar Mohammed all the males were killed who had reached puberty according to al-Tabari vol.8 p.38.
Abu Bakr ordered Khalid to execute everyone of the Banu Hanifah over whose face had passed a razor. al-Tabari vol.10 p.131. However, Khalid did not carry out Abu Bakr’s order because Khalid had already made a treaty with them.
However, at the battle of Dhat al-Riqa an unbeliever’s wife was killed. Later the unbeliever vowed to kill one of Mohammed’s companions. Abu Dawud vol.1 no.198 p.48.
After Mohammed’s time, one of Yazid’s soldiers, Shamir bin Dhi al-Jawshan, was going to burn the tent and women inside it, but he was rebuked for wanting to doing so. al-Tabari vol.19 p.141
Zaynab was not killed after she rebuked the Syrians [Muslim faction], because she was only a woman. al-Tabari vol.19 p.166
Women Should Not Fight Either
The woman Umm Wahb wanted to fight for Husayn, but Husayn sent her back, saying it is not for women to fight. al-Tabari vol.19 p.131
What About Idi Amin?
Idi Amin massacred large numbers of people and admired Adolf Hitler. However, every evening he had the Qur’an broadcast on the radio stations.
Do not fight bad leaders, as long as they say their prayers. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4569-4573 p.1033
Killing in General
Offensive threats: Sahih Muslim vol.4 no.6670 p.1445 "…he (the Holy Prophet) had in his mind (the idea of threatening the) Christians of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome."
"When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhajirs and inform then that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai’ except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them." Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4294 p.943
Sura 8:68 "It is not fitting For a Prophet That he should have Prisoners of war until He has thoroughly subdued The Land…."
"The Prophet said (to him), "Write: ‘Not equal are those believers who site (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah." Bukhari vol.6 book 60 ch.91 no.118 p.95.
Mohammed gave an example of extent of killing: Do not kill an entire colony of ants when only one bites you. Sahih Muslim vol.4 no.5567-5569 p.1214-1215.
Jihad in General
"…you should know that Paradise is under the shade of swords." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2625 p.727.
Threat against Muslims if they do not help with Jihad. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2497 p.693.
Fighting is jihad. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2503-2504 p.693.
Fight out of anger for Allah and his Apostle. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2531 p.705.
Horses are more useful for Jihad than mules. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1921 p.711
Near a marketplace or mosque, do not carry an arrow unless you hold them by their heads so no harm may come to a Muslim. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2581 p.716. The idea of "no harm to non-Muslims" is conspicuous by its absence.
Mohammed said he was commanded to fight with men till they testify there is no god but Allah, etc. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2634-2636 p.729-730.
"Fight against people until they say there is no God but Allah", abrogated an earlier tradition. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3188 p.908.
"One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah (may peace be upon him), nor expressed any desire (or determination) for Jihad died the death of a hypocrite." Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4696 p.1057.
"Ibn ‘Amr reported the Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying : When a man comes to visit a sick person, he should say : O Allah, cure Thy servant, who may then wreak havoc on an enemy for Thy sake, or walk at a funeral for Thy sake." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3101 p.884. Footnote 2571 p.884 says "Both these works are great virtues which Allah likes very much…."
Muslims Retaliating Against Each Other After Death
Narrated Abu Sa’id al-Khudri : Allah’s Apostle said, "When the believers pass safely over ( the bridge across) Hell, they will be stopped at a bridge in between Hell and Paradise where they will retaliate upon each other for the injustices done among them in the world, and when they get purified of all their sins, they will be admitted into Paradise." Bukhari vol.3 no.620 p.371.
Should People Be Expelled From Their Own Land?
The Jews were kicked out of Saudi Arabia Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4363 p.963 "…the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came to us and said: (Let us) go to the Jews. We went out with him until we came to them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up and called out to them (saying) O ye assembly of Jews, accept Islam (and) you will be safe. They said : … He said to them (the same words) the third time (and on getting the same reply) he added : You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I wish that I should expel you from this land Those of you who have any property with them should sell it, otherwise, they should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle (and they may have to go away leaving everything behind.)"
The earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle [Mohammed] is also in Bukhari vol.9 no.77 p.63. This has been used to justify every offensive attack for land as an alleged defensive war.
Mohammed said to the Jews: "Know that the earth is for Allah and I want to exile you from this land, so whoever among you has property he should sell it, otherwise, know that the land is for Allah and His Apostle." Bukhari vol.9 no.447 p.327.
Deportation of Jews from Medina. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2997 footnote 2423 p.851; vol.2 no.2998 p.852. Mohammed expelled every Jew living in Medina. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2999 p.802.
Mohammed commanded to expel the polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3023,3024,3026 p.860.
On his deathbed, Mohammed ordered the pagans expelled from the Arabian peninsula. Bukhari vol.4 no.288 p.183; al-Tabari vol.9 p.175. No other religion in the Arabian Peninsula. al-Tabari vol.9 p.206
"It has been narrated by ‘Umar bin al-Khattab that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say : I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims." Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4366 p.965. See also Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4363,4364,4365,4367 p.963-967.
Caliph ‘Umar was informed that Mohammed said "Two religions cannot coexist in the Arabian peninsula." He investigated the report, found it to be true, and expelled all the Jews who did not have a treaty with Mohammed. al-Tabari vol.8 p.130
Force to the Narrowest Part
Force Jews and Christians on the narrowest parts of the road lest harm come to them. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.5389,5390 p.1185. 5289 says "Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it." Footnote 2559 on this says, "The idea behind it is not to torture them or to put them to unnecessary trouble but to provide them a safe way in the throng of the Muslim travelers. It should, however, be borne in mind that this command does not imply that the Christians and the Jews should be forced to abandon streets and roads and thus walk by the side of the walls of houses or narrow paths. What this implies is that they should walk on the road away from the multitude of the Muslims, lest any harm should come to them."
Force Jews and Christians to walk on the narrowest part of the road. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5186 p.1436.
Wrongfully Killing Those Who Have a Treaty with Muslims
Protection given by one Muslim is binding on all. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2684-2685 p.88-89.
However, a Muslim will not be executed for murdering a disbeliever. This includes one given protection. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2658-2660 p.75.
On the other hand, a person will be executed for murdering his slave. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2663 p.76.
The most excellent of mankind as regards the way of killing, are believers [Muslims]. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2682 p.88.
The bloodwit for a dhimmi used to be half that of a Muslim. However, Caliph ‘Umar raised the bloodwit of a Muslims by 50% but left the amount for dhimmis the same. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4527 p.1274.
Even for dhimmis, they could be attacked and subjected to excesses by Muslim troops. al-Tabari vol.12 p.161
Muslims broke a treaty with Christians because they allegedly practiced usury. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3055 p.865.
The Smell of Paradise
"He who kills those who signed the accords and those who received our guarantees of safety will not smell the fragrance of paradise," the mufti Sheik Abdulaziz al-Sheik said in an interview published in the al-Riyadh newspaper. The Dallas Morning News 10/26/2001 (p.9A) says he is the top religious leader in Saudi Arabia. He probably got this from either Bukhari vol.4 no.391 p.259 which says very similar, or Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2686-2687 p.90 which says the same for a non-Muslim who has been given protection.
To put this in relation to other wrongdoing, if one acquires knowledge only for worldly gain, he will not smell the odor (‘arf) of Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3656 p.1039.
Also, a woman who asks for divorce without extreme reasons is also forbidden the smell of Paradise. Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 no.2055 p.237, or strong reason in Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2218 p.600. Thus killing a protected Christian or Jew is apparently as wicked as a woman lightly asking for divorce.
Muwatta’ Malik 48.4.7 also indicates that women who are naked even though they wear clothes [i.e. immodestly-dressed women], go astray and make others go astray. "and they will not enter the Garden [of Paradise] and they will not find its scent, and its scent is experienced from as far as the distance traveled in five hundred years."
No Compulsion in Religion?
A Muslim named Al-Mughirah bin Shu’ban said, "…We [all] entered his religion [Islam] either out of conviction or by coercion…" al-Tabari vol.12 p.137
People were made to submit to Islam unwillingly. al-Tabari vol.10 p.2
Islam was spread by the sword. al-Tabari vol.10 p.6
"For you are more deserving of this authority than they are, as it was by your swords that those who were not yet converted came to obey this religion [Islam]. al-Tabari vol.10 p.6
In Mohammed’s presence, Thabit b. Qays b. Shammas said that "We are the Helpers of God and the viziers of His Messenger, and we fight people until they believe in God. al-Tabari vol.9 p.69
Khalid summoned the people to become Muslims, and those who resisted were killed. al-Tabari vol.10 p.100
When Jarir reached Yemen, there was a man who used to foretell and give good omens by casting arrows of divination. Someone said to him, "The messenger of Allah’s Apostle is present here and if he should get hold of you, he would chop off your neck." One day while he was using them (i. e. arrows of divination ), Jarir stopped there and said to him, "Break them (i. e. the arrows) and testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, or else I will chop off your neck." So the man broke those arrows and testified that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah. Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.643 p.452
A Muslim galloped ahead and warned a village that they would be protected if they became Muslims. They did so. The other Muslims complained that the first Muslim deprived them of booty. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5062 p.1409-1410.
"the Prophet sat and said, "Whoever has killed an infidel and has an evidence to this issue, will have the Salb (i.e. the belonging of the deceased e.g. clothes, arms, horse, etc)." Bukhari vol.5 book 59 no.610 p.425
Some were converted to Islam against their will when Mecca was conquered. al-Tabari vol.39 p.197
Mohammed Ordered Torture to Find Where a Man Buried His Treasure
According to Ibn Ishaq: Kinanah b. al-Rabi’ b. Abi al-Huqayq who had the treasure of the Banu al-Nadir, was brought to the Messenger of God, who questioned him, but he denied knowing where it [the treasure] was. Then the Messenger of God was brought a Jew who said to him, "I have seen Kinanah walk around this ruin every morning." The Messenger of God said to Kinanah: "What do you say? If we find it in your possession, I will kill you. "All right he answered. The Messenger of God commanded that the ruin should be dug up, and some of the treasure was extracted from it. Then he asked him for the rest of it. Kinanah refused to surrender it, so the Messenger of God gave orders concerning him to al-Zubayr b. al-‘Awwam, saying, "Torture him until you root out what he has." Al-Zubayr kept twirling his firestick in his breast until Kinanah almost expired [died]; then the Messenger of God gave him to Muhammad b. Maslamah, who behead him to avenge his brother Mahmud b. Maslamah.". al-Tabari vol.8 p.122
Yet, Muslims should not burn their enemies with fire. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2667-2669 p.740.
‘Umar said that the booty of Bani An-Nadir was all for Mohammed, since it was not obtained on any expedition. Mohammed used it to provide for all of his wives and he dedicated the rest for purchasing arms and horses as war material to be used in Allah’s cause. Bukhari vol.6 book 60 ch.297 no.407 p.379.
The Meccan warriors were very eager for booty. al-Tabari vol.9 p.31
Killing Apostates and Heretics
Mu’adh would not sit down until a Jew, who became a Muslim, and then became a Jew again, was killed. Sahih Muslim vol.3 no.4490 p.1015.
‘Ali said that Mohammed prophesied that they should kill the al-Khawarj (Kharijites). Ibn-i-Majah vol.1 no.167-171 p.92-99.
Mohammed said the Kharijites are dogs of fire. Ibn-i-Majah vol.1 no.113 p.96.
Kill doctrinally deviant Muslims [Kharijites]. Ibn-i-Majah vol.1 no.175 p.87.
Mohammed boycotted all those Muslims who through avarice or fear of heat did not take part in Jihad. Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 footnote 1 p.69
Taking the goods of infidels. "Allah’s Apostle said on the Day of (the battle of) Hunain, ‘Whoever has killed an infidel and has a proof or a witness for it, the salb (arms and belongings of that deceased) will be for him." Bukhari vol.9 no.282 p.213.
The angels and all mankind are against one who stands in the way of bloodwit or retaliation. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2635 p.62.
If someone builds a mosque for Allah, Allah will build for him a house in Paradise. [Even Tamerlane who as a Muslim massacred Muslim civilians?] Ibn-i-Majah vol.1 no.736,738 p.406,407.
No two Muslims kill each other except that both are in Hellfire. Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 no.3963 p.296.
Threats against Muslims who do not go on Jihad. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2762-2763 p.140-141.
The angels and all mankind are against one who stands in the way of bloodwit or retaliation. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2635 p.62.
A man in Jihad either dies and goes to Paradise, or he returns home with war spoil. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2573-2574 p.135-136.
A martyr does not feel any pain of his murder except like the bite of an ant. Note that killing a Muslim in battle is called murder; but killing a non-Muslim in battle is a duty. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2802 p.166.
The most essential and greatest duty of Islam is Jihad. Ibn-i-Majah vol.1 footnote 1 p.141
Jihad against infidels. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 footnotes 1 p.171
A Muslim gets the possessions of the one he kills. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2837 p.182.
Umm ‘Atiya assisted with wounded, etc. in seven battles where Mohammed was there. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2856 p.193.
On the other hand, in 2008, the Turkish Office for
Religious Affairs (Diyanet Isleri Baskanligi) issued a fatwa ruling that apostasy from Islam according to the Qur’an is only punishable by Allah after death, not by worldly courts with worldly penalties. (see Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 12.04.2008, page 8, "Nur im Jenseits")
When Should Muslims Burn Down a Mosque?
Mohammed apparently was the first to order Muslims to burn down a mosque. He did it while Muslims were still in it. "The[n] the Messenger of God proceeded until he halted in Dhu Awan, a town an hour’s daytime journey from Medina. The people who had built the Mosque of Dissent (masjid al-dirar) had come to him while he was preparing for Tabuk saying, ‘O Messenger of God, we have built a mosque for the sick and needy and for rainy and cold nights, and we would like you to visit us and pray for us in it.’ [The Prophet] said that he was on the verge of traveling, and he was preoccupied, or words to that effect, and that when he returned, God willing, he would come to them and pray for them in it. When he stopped in Dhu Awan, news of the mosque came to him, and he summoned Malik b. al-Dukhshum, a brother of the Banu Salim b. ‘Awf, and Ma’n b. ‘Adi, or his brother ‘Asim b. ‘Adi, brothers of the Banu al-‘Ajlan, and said, ‘Go to this mosque whose owners are unjust people and destroy and burn it.’ They went out briskly until they came to the Banu Salim b. ‘Awf who were Malik b. al-Dukhshum’s clan. Malik said to Ma’n, ‘Wait for me until I bring fire from my people.’… Then both of them ran until they entered the mosque, its people inside, set fire to it and destroyed it and the people dispersed. Sura 9:107 speaks of this. al-Tabari vol.9 p.61. Footnote 425 on the same page says that Waqidi says the fire was set after the evening prayer.
Sunnis have blown up a mosque in Pakistan (blaming it on Zionists), and they have destroyed many mosques in Iraq. A Sunni mosque in Sudan was destroyed by more radical Sunnis. It seems if someone wants a safe place to build a mosque, it seems like the best place is in a non-Muslim land!
Rewards for Jihad
Fighting with Jews and Christians carries more reward than fighting others. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2482 footnote 1831 p.688.
Reward for fighting in Jihad and dying as a martyr. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2488 p.689.
Anyone who kills an infidel is guaranteed Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2no.2489 p.690. A reward is 1/3 booty and 2/3 in Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2491 p.691.
Muslims fighting against the unbelievers for Allah and die there will go to Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1843 p.691
Dirar bin al-Khattab was a non-Muslim until the conquest of Mecca. After he became a Muslim, he boasted that in his pre-Islamic days he caused ten companions of the prophet to wed virgins in Paradise. al-Tabari vol.12 p.120 footnote 400
Abu Sahl was promised Paradise. There would be no blame if he died without an extra deed after that. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2495 p.692-693.
There will emerge a harj before the (occurrence of) the Last Hour." I said, "Allah’s Messenger, what is a harj? He said, "(It means) shedding blood." Then some Muslims said, "Allah’s Messenger, even now we kill so many polytheists a year"… Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 no.3959 p.293.
Mohammed was commanded to fight until they affirm: there is no deity save Allah. Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 no.3927-3928 p.267-268.
The treasures of the Romans and Persians will be open to Muslims. Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 no.3996 p.315.
"Therefore, when you meet the Unbelievers (no mention of just defensive fighting), smite at their necks: at length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been God’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the way of God, He will never let their deeds be lost." Sura 47:4 In other words, martyrs are promised paradise.
For each step a warrior takes, 700 beauties [women] are destined for him and 700 sins forgiven. al-Tabari vol.10 p.16. Let’s do the math. If a typical warrior took 3 feet per step, and walked 21 days when on a journey, it would take about 121 days of walking on military campaigns to go 2,435 miles. This would give him about 3 billion beauties, which is roughly about how many females are on the earth right now.
Best is he who fights for Allah. Ibn-i-Majah vol.5 no.3918 p.304.
Do not breed mules because horses are more useful for Jihad. Sunan Nasa’i vol.1 footnote p.190
"It is reported about Yusayr b. Rizam, the Jew, that he was gathering Ghatafan in Khaybar to attack the Messenger of God, so the latter sent ‘Abdallah b. Rawahah with a number of his companions, among whom were ‘Abdallah b. Unays, an ally of the Banu Salamah." The urged him to come to Mohammed with them, which he started to do. On the way he regretted it, and they sensed it, so they attacked him and his Jewish companions and killed them. al-Tabari vol.9 p.120
War is Deception
Jabir reported that Mohammed said: "War is deception" Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2630-2631 p.728; also Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4749 p.1335. War is guile. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2833 p.181. Also al-Tabari vol.17 p.24
Mohammed sent Busaisah as a spy to see what the caravan of Abu Sufyan was doing. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2612 p.724.
Offensive Against the Persians and Romans (Byzantines)
The Muslims were the attackers against the Persians. They would not relent unless the Persians became Muslims or paid the tax. al-Tabari vol.12 p.80,85
Intent of attack on Constantinople. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2506 p.696. It said that Abu Ayyub strove in the path of Allah until he was buried in Constantinople. As a sidenote, Constantinople was not conquered until about 800 years later, after Sunan Abu Dawud was written.
"They left for Syria with their families and continued to wage jihad until they were killed." al-Tabari vol.12 p.200
Apostasy and the Ridda Wars
Both Muslim soldiers and the men of the apostate al-Aswad took hostages. al-Tabari vol.10 p.33
The first Ridda war was against al-‘Ansi in Yemen. The next was the war of Kharijah bin Hisn and Manzur bin Zabban bin Sayyar of Ghatafan. al-Tabari vol.10 p.41
Abu Bakr told the Muslim warriors that they can kill the apostates by being burned with fire or slaughtered by any means. Accept nothing from them except converting to Islam. al-Tabari vol.10 p.57
A Muslim general under Abu Bakr burned some Muslims apostates who fought against Muslims with fire. al-Tabari vol.10 p.76
Salma was captured and made a slave of ‘Aisha. Later ‘Aisha set her free. Salma later apostatized and organized an army. The Muslims attacked them and killed her. al-Tabari vol.10 p.78-79
Khalid bin Walid
Khalid bin al-Walid killed a Muslim man and then married his wife. ‘Umar spoke to Abu Bakr repeatedly about him. Abu Bakr did not do anything to Khalid though. al-Tabari vol.10 p.104
Abu Bakr rebuked Khalid for marrying when the blood of 1,200 dead Muslim warriors had not yet dried. al-Tabari vol.10 p.133
The caliph Abu Bakr would not replace Khalid bin al-Walid, despite his un-Islamic violence, because he "will not put away a sword that Allah has drawn against the unbelievers." al-Tabari vol.11 p.82
Tall tale: Khalid bin Walid conquered Rome. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2877 p.188.
Avoid making friends with polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2164 p.782.
Those who believe say, ‘Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)? But when a Sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death: but more fitting for them" Sura 47:20
"Now the men of the army used the heads [of the slain captives] to hold up their cooking-pots". al-Tabari vol.10 p.103
‘Umar said that the blood of a polytheist is not more valuable than a dog’s. al-Tabari vol.8 p.87
Claim that the Arabs used to find the taking of women abhorrent in war. However, what would they have thought of Mohammed frequently doing so? al-Tabari vol.10 p.102
A Muslim cut off a man’s leg in battle. The man begged for death, but the Muslim did not want the man to die until he had made him suffer. al-Tabari vol.10 p.145
The Qu’ran has 124 verses promoting tolerance. Sura 9:5 "slay the unbelievers…" annulling doctrine (Sura 2:106) 66 battles in the last ten years. In 100 verses Allah command killing others.
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