The Abu Dawud Hadiths
Every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4590 p.1294
There is no innovation after the Sunnah is established. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4595 p.1296
In the future beware of people who hold only to the Qur'an and reject the Sunnah. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4587-4589 p.1293-1294
As it is necessary to obey the Qur'an, likewise it is necessary to follow the contents of the hadiths and sunna. Abu Dawud vol.2 translator's footnote 887 p.405
What Makes a Sunni Muslim a Sunni?
The first three caliphs were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. 'Uthman standardized the Qur'an by ordering all the earlier copies burned, and 'Uthman was accused of putting relatives and favorites in power. When some Muslims killed 'Uthman because they thought he was unfit as caliph, 'Ali then assumed that role. Then came four key civil wars:
'Ali vs. A'isha's army at the Battle of the Camel
'Ali vs. the Kharijites (Khwaraj)
'Ali vs. Mu'awiyah for caliph at the Battle of Siffin
Mu'awiyah and later caliphs vs. the Kharijites
After this, Mu'awiyah wanted the caliphate to be hereditary, and his corrupt son Yazid became caliph next. But if the caliphate really was supposed to be hereditary ... Yazid had 'Ali's son and Mohammed's grandson Husain killed.
The Kharijites, primarily in Iraq, assassinated 'Ali and tried to assassinate Mu'awiyah. They were not a very cohesive group, but were more like anarchist terrorists and guerilla fighters. It took a long time to get rid of them, and it was only done by executing those who supported Kharijites and failed to inform the authorities about them.
The faction that was loyal to 'Ali and his descendants were called "supporters" from which the word Shi'ite was derived. They were primarily in Iraq, Persia, and parts of Egypt, though about 400 years later they were the dominant Muslim group. All Shi'ites (except the Ziyadite Shi'ites) believe that the other Muslims were wrong to deny 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, the caliphate. Under the supreme authority of their successors of Husain, they developed many traditions, somewhat similar to the Catholic church.
The Sunnis believe Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, (usually) 'Ali, and (usually) Mu'awiyah were rightful caliphs, though they generally agree that Yazid was bad. They were primarily in Syria and parts of Egypt. Some of the Sunni caliphs became very corrupt, one even drowning in a pool of wine. Revolts changed dynasties of the caliphates, and many times the caliph, the supreme Sunni leader, was held in ill-repute. A little over 200 years after Mohammed died Sunni scholars wrote down six collections of authoritative hadiths, or traditions of what Mohammed said and did. These are not on the same authority as the Qur'an, and Sunnis freely admit that there can be some errors that crept in. But these are the basis of Muslim Law, called Sharia. They can be compared to Orthodox Christianity, which has a large body of tradition that is very authoritative for them. Shi'ites too accept much of what is in the hadiths, though they obviously would not accept a few of the hadiths that seem to have an anti-Shi'ite bias.
What's the Key Difference?
So what is the difference between a Sunni and a Shi'ite or Ghulat Muslim? There are three answers
1) On the surface, they have different beliefs and practices: reverence of 'Ali, practice of "temporary marriage" (mu'tah), visiting tombs of Muslim saints, self-flagellation, celebrating Ashura, are some Shi'ite practices that Sunnis do not do. A few Sunnis do not consider Shi'ites real Muslims at all, though most do, and they are allowed to go to Mecca, though in the past they have had to pay an extra tax.
2) However, behind these issues, is the real issue of authority. Outside of the Qur'an, is religious law, including who lives and dies, based on what the Shi'ite imam say, with their traditions, or is it based on the Sunni traditions that made up Sharia Law? Alternately, is authority outside of the Qur'an from the writings of some other, who may have made a book himself?
3) The source of the Sunni/Shi'ite split was based on
when should a caliph be overthrown and killed,
how do you tell which rival caliph should have been followed. But over the centuries the caliphate became so corrupt and weak that the Turks finally abolished it. So the key difference between Sunnis and other Muslims today are
a) Sunnis accept the hadiths as the highest authority in Islam after the Qur'an,
b) Sunnis do not accept any later books, prophets, Mahdis, or other "successors" to Mohammed.
The Place of Abu Dawud
Of the six hadith collections, the third most important was by Abu Dawud/Da'ud/Daw'ud/Dawood al Sidjistani (vol.1 p.v). He lived from 817-888/889 A.D. (or, died in 275 A.H.). He finished his collection in 864/865 A.D. (241 A.H.). Abu Dawud collected4,800 hadiths out of a claimed 500,000. He had had the principle that "transmitters are considered trustworthy provided there is no formal proof to discredit them." The rest of this paper will show some of the interesting things in this collection.
Abu Dawud was from Sijistan, in Persia. He taught that 'Ali was a good caliph (Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4614 p.1300). Abu Dawud's father was at Siffin on 'Ali's side. (vol.1 p.iii)
Scholars disagree on whether he was a Hanbalite or Shafa'ite. (vol.1 p.iv). When he finished his collection in 241 A.H., he presented it to Ahmad Hanbal (vol.1 p.iv,v). He lived for 24 years after that, died in 265 A.H. 4,800. There are seven preserved copies, four of which are well known, (vol.1 p.vii)
Pictures in Homes
Angels do not enter a house with a picture, a dog, or a person who is sexually defiled. (Sexually defiled here does not mean immoral; rather it is a person who has not yet bathed after intercourse.) Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.227 p.55-56
Mohammed went to Fatimah's house, but turned back when he saw a figured curtain. Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 no.3746 p.1060
Children playing with dolls is OK; they do not fall under the category of prohibited pictures of animate objects. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4913-1914 footnote 4288 p.1373.
"...you should know that Paradise is under the shade of swords." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2625 p.727
Mohammed led a surprise attack on the Banu al-Mustaliq tribe while they were inattentive and their cattle were drinking water." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.227 p.727-728
Satirizing those who spoke against Mohammed is OK. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4997 p.1394-1395
A Muslim galloped ahead and warned a village that they would be protected if they became Muslims. They did so. The other Muslims complained that the first Muslim deprived them of booty. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5062 p.1409-1410.
There were deliberate differences between the laws God gave to the Jews and Christians and what God gave to the Muslims. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2336 p.643; vol.2 no.2346 and footnote 1678 p.646
"Fight against people until they say there is no God but Allah", abrogated an earlier tradition. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3188 p.908
Anyone who kills an infidel is guaranteed Paradise. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2489 p.690. See also Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1843 p.691
Fighting with Jews and Christians carries more reward than fighting others. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2482 footnote 1831 p.688
Mohammed expelled every Jew living in Medina. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2999 p.802. He commanded to expel the polytheists. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3023,3024,3026 p.860
Force Jews and Christians to walk on the narrowest part of the road. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5186 p.1436
Mohammed sacrificed a camel to enrage the infidels. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1046 p.459
Muslims broke a treaty with Christians because they allegedly practiced usury. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3055 p.865
One can kill a Muslim for only three reasons, one being apostasy. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4487 p.1260
One cannot kill a Muslim for killing an infidel. If anyone is given protection by a Muslim, he has the protection of all Muslims. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4515 p.1270-1271
Jews and the Grave
A Jew who forbade the other Jews to cut themselves where urine fell was punished in the grave. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.22 p.6
The bloodwit for a dhimmi used to be half that of a Muslim. However, Caliph 'Umar raised the bloodwit of a Muslims by 50% but left the amount for dhimmis the same. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4527 p.1274
Do not walk on a Muslim's grave with shoes.Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3224-3225 footnotes 2696-2697 p.917-918
At Banu al-Najjar the Muslims took over the land and dug up the graves of unbelievers looking for treasure. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.454 p.118
Alleged miracle of Mohammed telling which grave to dig up to get treasure. Also, it is OK for Muslims to dig up the graves of non-Muslims if they will get some benefit by it. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3082 and footnote 2556 p.878
Allah has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of his prophets. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1042 p.269 and vol.1 no.1526 p.397
The bodies of prophets are alive in their graves, and they can hear. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 514 p.269
Science and Superstition
Apply collyrium or use pebbles an odd number of times. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.35 p.8
Sanitation: When people asked about drinking from a well with menstrual clothes, dead dogs, and stinking things in it, Mohammed said that water is pure and is not defiled by anything. Abu Dawud vol.1 ch.35 no.66-67 p.16-17
The Mugharrihum tribe have some jinn ancestry in them. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5088 footnote 4436 p.1415-1416
Mohammed showed fear when he saw the rain or wind. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5079-5080 p.1414
One wing of a fly has a disease, and the other the cure. Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 no.3835 p.1080
Cupping is the best medicine. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3848,2850,2851 p.1084
Mohammed said that if anyone gets themselves cupped on the 17th, 19th, or 21 of the month, it will be a remedy for every disease. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3852 p.1084
Mohammed told people with a pain in their legs to die themselves with henna. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3849 p.1084
After eating, you should either lick your hand or else give it to someone to lick. Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 no.3838 p.1081
A man who says certain things will not suffer sudden affliction that day or night. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5069 p.1411
Vain repetition prayer is not valid but with the recitation of fatiha al Kitab [Sura 1] Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.818-821 and footnotes 371-373 p.208-209; vol.1 book 2 no.822 p.210
Fatima complained to Mohammed about her using the grinding stone and asked for a slave (prisoner of war). Mohammed did not give her one, but he said he gave her something better. He told her to say glory be to Allah 33 times, Praise be to Allah 34 times, and Allah is most great 34 times. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5044-5045 p.1405
Atonement and Rewards
"If anyone takes a bath on a Friday, puts on his best clothes, applies a touch of perfume if he has any, then goes to the congregational prayer (in the mosque), and takes care not to step over people, then prays what Allah has prescribed for him, then keeps silent from the time his Imam comes out until he finishes his prayer, it will atone for his sins during the previous week." Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.343 p.91.
Men tell their wives when to take a bath: "If anyone makes (his wife) wash and he washes himself on Friday, goes our early (for Friday prayer), attends the sermon from the beginning, walking, not riding, takes his seat near the Imam, listens attentively, and does not indulge in idle talk, he will get the reward of a year's fasting and praying at night for every step he takes." Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.345 p.91. The reward is for the husband: no reward for the wife is explicitly mentioned.
Mohammed asked to have his sins removed and washed with water, snow, and hail. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.780 p.200.
Mohammed prayed for forgiveness. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.849 p.217; vol.1 book 2 no.876-878 p.224-225. See also Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2382 p.655
Mohammed was forgiven of his past and future sins. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4945 p.1380
There is an hour on Friday when Allah will grant whatever is asked of him. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1043-1044 p.270
If one performs ablution, prayer, and keeps silence on Friday, all sins are forgiven for one week. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1045 p.270
"Penance of 1 dinar or 1/2 a dinar for missing Friday prayer. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1048-1049 p.271-272
If what someone says synchronized with what the angels say, the all past sins are forgiven. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.847 p.217
"Umm Salamah said that she heard the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) say : If anyone puts on ihram for Hajj or 'Umrah from the Aqsa mosque to the sacred mosque, his former and latter sins will be forgiven, or he will be guaranteed Paradise. The narrator 'Abd Allah doubted which of these words he said...." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.1737 p.457
Ten things can have Allah forgive you of your sins. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1292,1295 p.340-341
If one prays at night or fasts during Ramadan, then all sins are forgiven him. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1366,1367 p.358-359
Say something 33 times and then repeat three times, and all sins will be forgiven. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1499 p.392-393.
A non-hypocritic Muslim getting sick atones for sins. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3083,3086,3087 p.879-881
If 40 or more good Muslim men pray at a Muslim's funeral, he will be forgiven. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3164 footnote 2638 p.900
Drinking wine is forbidden. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3661-3672 p.1041-1043
If one dies while drunk, they will not drink in the next life. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3671 p.1043
If something is an intoxicant, even a small amount is forbidden. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3673 p.1043-1044; vol.3 no.3679 p.1045
If a Muslim will not abandon wine, fight with him. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3675 p.1044
No buying or selling wine. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3666 p.1042
Mohammed forbade selling or using wine, dead meats, and pigs. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3478-3484 p.991-992
"Hunaid bin 'Abd al-Rahman quoted his mother as saying : The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said : He who forged in order to put things right between two persons did not lie. The version by Ahmad bin Muhammad and Musadda has : The liar is not the one who puts things right between people, saying what is good and increasing good." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4902 p.1370-1371
"Umm Kulthum, daughter of 'Uqbah, said : I did not hear the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) giving license for anything people say falsely except in three matters. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) would say : I do not count liar a man who puts things right between people, saying a word by which he intends only putting things right, and a man who says something in war, and a man who says something to his wife and the wife says something to his husband." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4903 p.1371.
If anyone deliberately attributes a lie to Mohammed, their abode is Hell. Abu Dawud vol.3 ch.1372 book 19 no.3643 p.1036.
Toward the End Mohammed Could Write
Mohammed was called unlettered. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.976,977 p.250. Yet...
Mohammed later wrote a will for a Muslim named al-Harith al-Tamami. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5062 p.1410, or the same or a different document for Bilah bin Harith al-Muzani. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3056 p.870
Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2993 p.849 mentions a document written by Mohammed, as does Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3021 p.859-861
'Uthman and the Qur'an
"Yazid al-Farisi said: I heard Ibn 'Abbas say: I asked 'Uthman bin 'Affan: What moved you to put the (Surah) al-Bara'ah which belongs to the mi'in (surahs) (containing one hundred verses) and the (Surah) al-Anfal which belongs to the mathani (Surahs) in the category of al-Sab'u al-tiwal (the first long surahs or chapters of the Qur'an), and you did not write "In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful" between them? 'Uthman replied : When the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to the Prophet (may peace be upon him), he called someone to write them for him and said to him : Put this verse in the surah in which such-and-such has been mentioned; and when one or two verses were revealed, he used to say similarly. ... Hence I put them in the category of al-sab'u al-tiwal (the seven lengthy suras), and I did not write 'In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful' between them." Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 ch.276 no.785 p.201-202
Variations in the Qur'an
Sura 1:46 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3383 p.1116
Sura 18:76 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3384 p.1116
Sura 18:86 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3385 p.1116
Sura 24:35 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3387 p.1116
Sura 34:23 due to vowels and a consonant. Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3392 p.1117
Sura 39:59. This quotes with a feminine pronoun for soul, while the well-known readings have a masculine pronoun. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3979 footnote 3393 p.1117
Sura 89:86 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3399 p.1118
Sura 89:25-26 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3408 p.1119
Sura 12:23 due to vowels. Haita (people of Kufah and Basrah) or Hita (people of Medina and Syria). Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3411 p.1120
Sura 18:86 due to vowels. Hamiya with a long 'a' for warm water, or hami'ah meaning musky [murky?] water. Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3408 p.1120
Sura 2:58 Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3413 p.1121
Variation in Sura 24:1 (missing or an extra "r" faradnaha (and which we have ordained) vs. the majority farradnaha (which we have described in detail) Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 3414 p.1121
Last part of Sura 73 was 12 months after the first part. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1337-1339 p.352-353
Abrogation of Parts of the Qur'an
Sura 73:2-3 is abrogated by Sura 73:20. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1299 p.343
Sura 2:184 is abrogated. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2308. Also ibid footnote 1636 p.632.
Sura 9:44 is abrogated by Sura 24:62. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2765 p.776
A'isha Age At Marriage
"'A'ishah said : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) married me when I was seven years old. The narrator Sulaiman said : Or six years. He had intercourse with me when I was nine years old." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2116 p.569
A'ishah played with dolls, and other girls. When Mohammed came in the other girls went out, and when Mohammed went out, they came back in. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4913 p.1373
'A'ishah said : I used to play with dolls. Sometimes the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) entered upon me when the girls were with me. When he came in, they went out, and when he went out, they came in." Sunan Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4913 p.1373 Note carefully this is NOT saying Mohammed had intercourse with A'isha while her playmates were watching. Rather it says the playmates played with her, and they went out when Mohammed came by, and could come back after he left.
"'A'ishah said : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) married me when I was seven or six. When we came to Medina, some women came. According to Bishr's version: Umm Ruman came to me when I was swinging. They took me, made me prepared and decorated me. I was then brought to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him), and he took up cohabitation with me when I was nine. She halted me at the door, and I burst into laughter." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4915 p.1374
"Abu Dawud said : That is to say : I menstruated, and I was brought in a house, and there were some women of the Ansari (Helpers) in it. They said : With good luck and blessing. The tradition of one of them has been included in the other."
"The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Abu Usamah in a similar manner through a different chain of narrators. This version has: 'With good fortune.' She (Umm Ruman) entrusted me to them. They washed my head and redressed me. No one came to me suddenly except the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) in the forenoon. So they entrusted me to him." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5916 (typo, really 4916) p.1374
'A'ishah said: When we came to Medina, the women came to me when I was playing on the swing, and my hair were [sp] up to my ears. They brought me, prepared me, and decorated me. Then they brought me to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he took up cohabitation with me, when I was nine. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4917 p.1374
"The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Hisham bin 'Urwah through a different chain of narrators. This version adds: I was swinging and I had my friends. They brought me to a house ; there were some women of the Ansar (Helpers). They said : With good luck and blessing." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4918 p.1374
(4919) 'A'ishah said : We came to Medina and stayed with Banu al-Harith bin al-Khazraj. She said : I swear by Allah, I was swinging between two date-palms. Then my mother came, and made me come down; and I had my hair up to the ears. The transmitter then mentioned the rest of the tradition." Sunan Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4915-4919 p.1374.
Backgammon is not allowed. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4920 p.1375
If a person washes more or less than they are supposed to, then they have done wrong and transgressed. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.135 p.33
Female circumcision mentioned as proper. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.217 p.53
Allah does not accept the prayer of anyone while they are defiled. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.60 p.14
Perform ablution and concentrate on prayer and "Paradise will be his lot by all means" Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.169 p.41
Discussion of what if one passes gas while performing ablution. Should it be done again if simply feel it, or smell, or sound. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.177 p.42
Must perform ablution again if one ate anything cooked with fire. Later this was abrogated. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 91 p.46
No crossing fingers or snapping them is allowed between ablution and prayer. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.562 and footnote 246 p.148
Intertwining the fingers during prayer "is the prayer of those who earn the anger of Allah." Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.988 and footnote 479 p.253
Modernist Muslims are wrong. Veils and seclusion of women from men in Muslim society [today] is required. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 506 p.267
Quote of a part of Sura 2:144. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1040 p.268
Allegedly a boy passed between Mohammed and a tree, so Mohammed cursed him saying he could not walk again, and he became crippled. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.707 p.182
Hanafites do not raised their hands before bowing. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 342 p.193
Disagreement on hands before knees or vice versa. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.839-840 and footnote 383 p.215
Prayer does not count unless one keeps their back straight while prostrating. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.854 p.219
If the imam makes a mistake men should glorify Allah and women should clap their hands. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.439 p.237; vol.1 book 2 no.939-942 p.239-240
Synchronized with the imam at amen. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.936 p.238
Muslim schools had disputes among themselves over how to wipe the socks. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 80 p.36
Do not say, "Upon you be peace" to the living. Rather say, "Peace be upon you." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5190 p.1437
Allah's rules would change because of people asking questions! "...The Muslim who offends most against the Muslims is he who enquires about something which has not been forbidden to men, and it is declared forbidden because of his enquiry." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4593 p.1295. Footnote 401 on the same page says: "...the Prophet (may peace be upon him) asked the Muslims not to ask questions frequently so that there might not be hardship in Islamic teachings."
A wife has a right not to be struck on her face. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2137 p.574
Do not revile a wife or beat her on her face. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2138-2139 p.574-575
Beating women: "Iyas bin 'Abd Allah bin Abi Dhubab reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not beat Allah's handmaidens, but when 'Umar came to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Women have become emboldened towards their husbands, he (the Prophet) gave permission to beat them. Then many women came round the family of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) complaining against their husbands. So the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said : Many women have gone round Muhammad's family complaining against their husbands. They are not the best among you.(1467)" Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2141 p.575
"This shows that wives should obey their husbands. In case they do not obey or become emboldened towards their husbands, they should try to amend them by preaching and education. Beating is the last resort. But it is better to avoid beating as far as possible." Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1467 p.575.
"'Umar bin al-Khattab reported the Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife.(1468)" Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2142 p.575
"This means that a man tries his best to correct his wife, but he fails to do so, he is allowed to beat her as a last resort. This tradition never means that a husband should heat her [his] wife without any valid reason. If he beats her without any fault on her part, he will be responsible and called to answer." Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1468 p.375
Sex with Captives
Sex with captives: "Abu Sai'd al-Khudri said : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives in the presence of their husbands who were unbelievers. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Qur'anic verse: (Sura 4:24) "And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess." That is to say, they are lawful for them when they complete their waiting period.(1479)" Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2150 p.577
Salamah was given a captive girl and had not yet "untied her garment" Mohammed took the woman from Salamah and gave her to the Meccans to ransom Muslim prisoners. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2691 p.749-750.
"After the distribution of the spoils of war a man may have intercourse with the female slave after passing one menstrual period, if she is not pregnant. If she is pregnant one should wait till she delivers the child. This is the view held by Malik, al-Shafi'i and Abu Thawr. Abu Hanifah holds that if both the husband and wife are captivated together, their marriage tie still continues; they will not be separated. According to the majority of scholars, they will be separated. Al-Awza-i maintains that their marriage tie will continue till they remain part of the spoils of war. If a man buys them, he may separate them if he desires, and cohabit with the female slave after one menstrual period. ('Awn al-Ma'bud II.213)" Note that Mohammed married Safiyah right after the battle. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 1479 p.577-578.
A Muslim warrior has to wait until a woman's menstrual course is finished before having sex with her. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2153-2154 p.578
'Amr bin Shu'aib on his father's authority said that his grandfather reported the Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: If one of you marries a woman or buys a slave, he should say: 'O Allah, I ask Thee for the good in her, and in the disposition Thou hast given her; I take refuge in Thee from the evil in her, and in the disposition Thou hast given her.' When he buys a camel, he should take hold of the top of its hump and say the same kind of thing." Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2155 p.579
A Mustahil (one who briefly marries a woman for the sole purpose of a former husband being able to remarry her again) is cursed. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2071 p.555
A divorced woman cannot remarry the same man until she has consummated a marriage with someone else. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2192 p.592-593
A woman cannot remarry the same man until she consummates a marriage with another. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2302 p.629
A man almost killed his wife for being outside of the house without a veil. She was outside because of a snake. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5237-5238 p.1448-1449
"...Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil." Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.639 p.168
The law that a woman must cover her face is included in the law that she must cover her private parts. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote 2749 p.935
"Al-Zuhri said : We were with 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz. There we discussed temporary marriage. A man called Rabi' b. Saburah said : I bear witness that my father told me that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) had prohibited it at the Farewell Pilgrimage (1399). (2068) Rabi' b. Saburah reported on the authority of his father : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) prohibited temporary marriage with women." Footnote 1399 says, "Mut'ah (temporary marriage) was forbidden by the Prophet (may peace be upon him) on six occasions, namely, at the battle of Khaibar, atonement of the Umrah ('Umrat al-Qada), conquest of Mecca, battle of Awtas, battle of Tabuk and the Farewell Pilgrimage. Al-Thawri said: What is correct is that temporary marriage was made lawful twice and prohibited twice. It was made lawful before the battle of Khaibar, but prohibited on the same occasion. It was again made lawful at the conquest of Mecca and forbidden on the same occasion. This is the year of the battle of Awtas. Henceforth it was forbidden eternally. This is the view held by all Companions and scholars. Some of the Companions thought it lawful but later on they withdrew their opinion. The present position is that temporary marriage is eternally forbidden according to all the Sunnis (orthodox Muslims)." [Contrary to this, some Hanbalites hold to Mu'tah though.]. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2067-2069 and footnote 1399 p.554
Women in Islam
'Umar commanded his son 'Abd Allah to divorce his wife, but he refused because he loved her. So 'Umar went to Mohammed, and Mohammed ordered him to divorce her. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.5119 p.1422
A wife cannot fast extra, or allow someone to enter their home without her husband's permission. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2452, 2453 p.677-678
Mohammed did not rebuke a husband who beat his wife for praying and fasting extra. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2453 p.677-678
A black dog or a woman cut off prayer. Or, a dog and menstruating woman cut off prayer. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.702,703 p.181
Prayer is prohibited after the afternoon prayer except when the sun is high. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1269 p.335. Prohibited times of prayer are also mentioned in Abu Dawud vol.1 book 2 no.1272-1273 p.336
"'Abd Allah bin 'Umar reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying : I did not see more defective in respect of reason and religion than the wise of you (women). A woman asked : What is the defect of reason and religion? He replied : The defect of reason is the testimony of two women for one man, and the defect of faith is that one of you does not fast during Ramadan (when one is menstruating), and keep away from prayer for some days." Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4662 p.1312. Footnote 4082 on the same page says, "This shows that women are defective in faith. From this Abu Dawud argues that Faith increases and diminishes."
A menstruating woman is not allowed to stay in the mosque. (She might be able to enter it briefly though.) Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 113 p.57
A menstruating woman is not allowed to recite the Qur'an. Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 111 p.56
Women did not need to come to make up abandoned prayers during menstruation. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.262-265 p.65-66
No coitus interrupts (a sexual practice), just do everything with slave-girls and female captives. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2166-2168 p.582
"He [Mohammed] replied, 'Conceal your private parts except from your wife and from whom your right hands possess (slave-girls).'" Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4006 p.1123. They do not have to be married to the slave girls.
Abu Dawud vol.3 no.4443-4445 p.1244 shows that having sex with a slave-girl you own is fine, but a man will be flogged for having sex with his wife's slave-girl.
The urine of a female infant should be washed thoroughly; the male just sprinkle over. Abu Dawud vol.1 book 1 no.374-379 p.97-98
A woman should not give a gift from the joint property with her husband. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3539 p.1006. This is generally because a woman lacks wisdom and intelligence. Abu Dawud vol.2 footnote on p.1006
"'A'ishah said: Habibah daughter of Sahl was the wife of Thabit bin Qais bin Shimmas. He beat her and broke some of her part. So she came to the Prophet (may peace be upon him) after morning, and complained to him against her husband. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) called on Thabit bin Qais and said (to him): Take a part of her property and separate yourself from her. He asked: Is that right, Apostle of Allah? He said: Yes. He said: I have given her two gardens of min as a dower, and they are already in her possession. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Take them and separate yourself from her." Note that the man got his gardens back after beating his wife and breaking part of her. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.2220 p.600
Muslim legal experts disagree on circumcision for girls. Abu Dawud vol.3 footnote 4257 p.1451
>Sunan Abu Dawud : English Translation with Explanatory Notes by Prof. Ahmad Hasan. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers, Booksellers & Exporters :Lahore - Pakistan. 1984)
A partial on-line list of Abu Dawud's hadiths is at:
>The Holy Qur-an : English translation of the meanings and Commentary. Translated by 'Abdullah Yusuf 'Ali. Revised and edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, IFTA, Call and Guidance. King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex. (no date)
Al-Bukhari Sahih Al-Bukhari. (translated by Muhammad Muhsin Khan published by al Maktabat Al Salafiat Al Madinato Al Monawart. (no date) (9 volumes)
>Sahih Muslim by Imam Muslim. Rendered into English by 'Abdul Hamid Siddiqi. International Islamic Publishing House. (no date)
>The NIV Study Bible : New International Version Zondervan Bible Publishers. 1985.
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